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A-1. Detailed guide for the trainer
A-2. Sample training agenda (for 12 days)
B-1. Entry and Analysis of Pile Sort Data on Anthropac 3.2
B-2. Triads: Grouping women's illnesses
C-1. Setting up a qualitative database on the microcomputer
C-2. Coding qualitative data on the microcomputer
C-3. Qualitative Data Retrieval Using DtSearch
C-4. Ordering the software

A-1. Detailed guide for the trainer

The materials presented in this appendix are an outline. This outline is intended for use by a trained social scientist. The trainer will probably want to turn some of the materials presented below into transparencies or handouts.

I. List a Series of Training Objectives

1. To expose students to the basic assumptions, approach, and rationale of qualitative research.

2. To provide students with experiences/training in the practice of several key qualitative data collection techniques, including selection of appropriate method(s), and the collection, recording and writing of field notes.

3. To provide students with experience/training in systems for the management and analysis of qualitative data.

4. To demonstrate how information obtained through qualitative research, either alone or linked with quantitative research, can provide answers to key questions concerning health and nutrition program design, implementation, and evaluation.

II. Describe Training Mechanics

This will include a description of the agenda for the training (see example provided in Appendix A-2).

III. The Qualitative Research Approach

1. Assumptions of Qualitative Research: Focus on Culture, Which is Shared, Collective, Systematic, Organized, Has Both Explicit and Implicit Elements, Shows Variability Across Populations

2. Doing Qualitative Research: Iterative, Flexibility, Triangulation, Holistic/Systems Perspective

3. Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Not a Dichotomy, a Continuum




Insider's Perspective (Emic)

Outsider's Perspective (Etic)



Hypothesis Generating

Hypothesis Testing




Less Structured

More Structured

More Dynamic/Flexible

Less Dynamic/Flexible




More Depth

Less Depth

Purposive, Random




Less Rich

Multiple (Triangulation)


IV. The "Toolbox" of Qualitative Research

1. Person: Self (the investigator), Data Collectors

2. Language: Describing cultures in their own terms, Process of learning a new language important, Challenge of working in a language you think you know

3. Equipment: Notebook, Camera, Tape Recorder, Microcomputer

V. Outline of Data Collection Techniques:

The Continuum of "Structuredness"

Less Structured More Structured

Key Informant Interviewing

Informal Conversational



Multiple Informant Methods






Direct Observation








Formal (Systematic) Methods


Free Pile




Pile Sorting


Written Documents



Birth, Clinic, Government




VI. Exploring Cultural Domains

1. An Important Unit of Analysis in Ethnographic Research

2. Definition of "Domain"

3. Types of Domains: Places/Locations, Material Things, People, Concepts

4. Attributes of Domains: Cover Term, Included Terms (Items), Semantic Relationship, Boundaries

VII. Developing Ethnographic Field Guides (EFG)

1. Initial Purpose of EFG: To identify and provide preliminary exploration of relevant cultural domains with (potential) key informants.

2. Should Focus on Research Topic

3. Length: 10-20 Questions, Plus Instructions

4. May Be Divided into Subtopical Areas: Should be in a logical order.

5. Introductory Statement: Purpose of study, confidentiality, should include disclosure statement, etc.

6. Types of Questions: Open-ended; Exploratory; identify local terms, domains.

7. Way to Use an EFG: As a starting point; a set of cues. NOT to be followed precisely like a structured survey.

An example is provided in this Appendix, labeled T1.1

VIII. Protecting Your Informants/ Respondents:

Your Duty/responsibility, Confidentiality/Use of Pseudonyms, Use an Informed Consent/Disclosure Statement, Purpose of the Study/How Describe to Study Population

IX. Key Informants

1. What is a Key Informant? Someone with whom you develop a Social Relationship of Communication, is a Cultural Liaison/Native Speaker, Characteristics of a Good Key Informant (knowledgeable about topics/domains of interest, thoroughly enculturated, currently involved in domain/activity of interest or recently experienced, contemplative/makes comparisons, staying around for a while)

2. Different Types of "Respondents" in Qualitative Research: Subjects, Informants, Respondents, Actors

3. How to Locate and Select Potential Key Informants: Through Discussion with Community Leaders and Others, Have Local People Make Community Maps, Use of Informal/Social Networks, Cultural Consensus Analysis (Borgatti, 1992)

4. Types of Key Informants: Type 1: Persons in higher administrative positions, Type 2: Community outreach workers, Type 3: Special people in the population (e.g., TBA)

X. Key Informant Interviewing

1. Types of Key Informant Interviews

General Techniques: Informal Conversational, Ethnographic Field Guide (Topical or Questions), Standardized Open-Ended Instrument

Specialized Techniques: History (or more specifically, a Fertility History), Event History Matrices (e.g., Postpartum period), Case History (e.g., Illness Recall), Typical Day (Spradley, 1979)

2. Types of Interviewing Questions (Spradley, 1979)

Descriptive: Grand Tour Questions, Mini-Tour Questions, Example Questions, Experience Questions, Native-Language Questions

Structural: Verification Questions, Cover Term Questions, Included Term Questions, Substitution Frame Questions, Card-Sorting Structural Questions

Contrast: Contrast Verification Questions, Directed Contrast Questions, Dyadic/Triadic Contrast Questions, Contrast Set Sorting Questions, Rating Questions

3. Interviewing Technique

Behavioral Stages of a Key Informant lnterview: Greetings, Explanations (The Project, Confidentiality/Consent, Method of Recording Information, Native Language ('speak as you would naturally'), Special Task Explanations, Question Introduction,

During The Interview (Express Cultural Ignorance, Express Interest, Try to Use Local Expressions),

Closing Comments (Desire to meet again/ Set a time, They can ask you questions).

Main Techniques in Key Informant Interviewing: Iteration Within The Interview, Probing (by the interviewer), Not Leading (by the interviewer), Key Informant Leads (to some extent).

What is a Probe?
Learn Culturally Appropriate Probing Behavior (Silent, "Uh-huh" (Nodding, and Other Minimalist Probes), "What Else?," Repetition, "Tell Me about...," "Grand Tour" Question, Directive or Leading Probes (For Confirmation/Testing, Bringing up Subjects from Earlier Interviews)

Guidelines for Formulating Questions While Interviewing: Avoid "Why?" Questions, Avoid Yes/no Questions, Use "Describe...," "Tell Me about...," Learn How to Rephrase/Rethink Questions, Identify "Sensitive" Questions and Ask Them Later.

Types of Informant Responses: Most Problems Your Fault, Success: Crudely Measured in Volume of Informant's Response, Informants Who Don't Seem to "Get It" (Typical Vexing Responses: "I Don't Know," "for Costumbre," "God's Will," "You're the (Doctor/Nurse/Educated One), You Tell Me!"

XI. The Qualitative Field Note Process

Collecting "Raw" Field Notes (r) Writing Expanded Field Notes (r) Managing Field Notes (r) Coding Field Notes (r) Retrieval and Analysis

XII. Writing Field Notes

1. Raw Field Notes: Usually not word for word, Series of cue words and phrases, If possible, record your questions as well as their responses, Keep key terms in local language, Include Sketches/ Diagrams/Maps

2. Expanded Field Notes: Allocate Time/Write Up ASAP After Raw Field Notes Collected, Include Identification Information, Include "Contextual" Information, Be Detailed

3. Types of Field Notes: Descriptive (95%), Methodological (4%), Analytical/Interpretive (1%)

4. How to Mark the Different Kinds of Notes

[ ] - analytical/methodological notes
( ) - gestures, tone
"" - direct quotes
... - missing information

XIII. Managing Field Notes: Different Methods

1. Purposes of Management System: Organization, Indexing, Retrieval, Planning

2. Main Methods: Notebook, Filing System, Cards (e.g., Q-sort Cards), Microcomputer

XIV. Codes

1. What is a Code? "An abbreviation or symbol applied to a segment of words (sentence or paragraph) in order to classify them." (Miles and Huberman, 1994)

2. Function of Codes: Organization, Retrieval, Assembly, Reduction, Finding Pattern

3. Types of Codes: Numeric, Mnemonic, Words

XV. Setting Up a Coding System

1. Create a Codebook: Contains a short form for each code (mnemonic/ALT-key combination), Contains the long form for each code (written out). Contains a set of rules on when/when not to use code, Should provide examples of what/ what not to code

2. General Types of Codes Applied to Textual Data: Descriptive or Abstract

3. Suggested Types of Specific Codes to Include:

- [Terminology/Definition] Used when new words come up, are defined by informants

- [Domain, Included Terms, Boundary]

- [Methodological/Data Collection] Used when you learn a new technique, how to ask a question, etc.

- [Reported Behavior], - [Observed Behavior]

- [Interpretation: ] Used for your own commentary, ramblings

XVI. Coding Field Notes

1. Process of Coding Forces You to Read Your Data

2. When to Start Coding? Pre-data collection complete coding list, Post-data collection coding list, Start-list, then ongoing

3. Where To Put The Code: Top of Page, Margins, Inserted into Text, On Top of Text

XVII. Behavioral Stages of a Key Informant Interview:

Duration, Greetings, Explanations (about the project, Confidentiality/Consent, Method of Recording Information, Native Language ('speak as you would naturally'), Special Task Explanations, Question Introduction), During The Interview (Express Cultural Ignorance, Express Interest, Try to Use Local Expressions), Closing Comments

XVIII. Main Techniques in Key Informant Interviewing

1. Iteration Within The Interview

2. Probing (by the interviewer)

3. Not Leading (by the interviewer)

XIX. Types of Probes

1. Need to Learn Culturally Appropriate Probing Behavior

2. Types: Silent, "Uh-huh," "What Else?," Repetition, Directive (Or Leading Probes)

XX. Guidelines for Formulating Questions While Interviewing

1. Types Of Questions: Descriptive, Structural, Contrast

2. Avoid "Why?" Questions

3. Avoid Yes/No Questions

4. Use "Describe...," "Tell Me About ..."

5. Identify "Sensitive" Questions

XXI. Identifying Cultural Domains in Interview Texts

1. A Type of Preliminary Analysis

a. Select a Sample of Interview Notes (Especially Verbatim Text From Exploratory Interviews)

b. Look for The Names of Things/Activities/Events: new words, common words used in unfamiliar ways, plural forms

c. Identify Possible Cover and Included Terms

d. Select Possible Semantic Relationships: is a kind of (inclusion), is a part of, is a result of (causal), is a reason for, is a way to, is a stage in (progression)

2. Sample Key Informant Interview Text

SF: "Me and my wife are going over the hill... I'm over 50 I like to eat food from the bush, like fish and moosemeat. I feel healthier...but the kids don't do anything to have a partridge for supper ... from the wilderness ... these things are pretty healthy for me. Like I don't like to eat wieners...wieners are pretty slimy for me ... not like the way they used to be before."

JG: "How were they before?"

SF: "Now they are kind of sour...bitter...the same thing with canned foods .... a can of KLIK used to be pretty good ...used to be good to eat. Today they (all canned foods) are different. The only thing that didn't change is pork and beans ... fruit is okay, canned fruit. I don't care for spicy foods myself .... My wife has been a diabetic for 20 years. She knows how to control her diet. Like when she drinks coffee ...she takes a whiff and knows there's sugar in there. As for the little ones, we don't feed them too much junk food, like candy and chips ... we give them Indian food ... we were taught to be white men ... now we're trying to be Indians.... I have been training this little one (points to K2) to take a bowl of (moosemeat) stew.... I got three little ones ...they are learning the language (missed some here). I am trying to get my kids to enjoy food provided by our Creator ... that's the way we were brought up. Do you know what they (the children) want when we go to the store? ...french fries, pop, beans ... for some reason they don't really eat canned food. What else do you like to eat from the store?"

K1: "I don't know...."

SF: "...Sardines, salmon, beef stew ...spaghetti and meatballs. Our best recipe is boiling ground beef with macaroni ... then (missed)."

JG: "What do you call that?"

SF: "There's no name... just soup (laughs) spices .... One time I heard of this guy in Trout Lake, he cut a bologna ... found a finger in there."

JG: "OH!"

SF: "That's right, that was terrible! I had some bologna ...came from bingo and had some with toast.... The biggest meal we have here is lunchtime ... we are comfortable that way. We don't eat a lot at dinner. That's our time for recreation.

JG: "So you do recreation?"

SF: "Not just recreation - fund raising for kids, ...spiritual things.. bingo, .... Our favorite food from the bush is moose, rabbit, partridge, beaver, geese ...."

K1: Ducks....

SF: "....ducks...there's lots ... we don't eat muskrat, otters ...a long time ago we would eat squirrels. During the Depression ...sometimes in the 40s we'd even boil little birds. We couldn't eat weasels ...squirrel is usually not too bad when you smoke it."

JG: "Are there different times of the year when you eat different animals?"

SF: "We only eat beaver in the summer. Other animals at other times, winter, spring, summer ... they (the children) like to eat raw vegetables carrots. (Points to a carrot on the floor) (To K2) Put that in the garbage ... right there ... good boy. (points to a sack on the floor) ...there's my oats."

JG: "Let me see ... so you only eat beaver in the summer (repeat back earlier statement)?"

SF: "No, no ... we eat all animals year round ... except beaver, we don't eat beaver in the summer. "

JG: "What about other wild foods, like plant stuff?"

SF: "Yeah ... berries, we really go for that."

JG: "When do you eat berries?"

SF: "Anytime they're ripe ... June to August. Not yet this year ... it's too cold. I was planning to plant a garden .. but it's too cold. I will probably start next week ... just potatoes."

JG: "So far you've mentioned canned foods, wild foods, junk foods ... what other kinds of foods are there?"

SF: "In the store?"

JG: "Anywhere."

SF: "There's lot's of junk food in the store ... animals in the bush are fresh ... eventually (some year) they will start to get sick."

JG: "Why do you think wild foods are healthier?"

SF: "(defensive) That's the way I was brought up ... I believe in those things. That's what my parents taught me. The Creator gave us all those things ... they are fresh, not rotten, not spoiled. I don't like to destroy these animals. I got a lot of respect. You just take what you need."

XXII. Types of Group Data Collection Methods in Qualitative Research

1. Common Theme in Group Work: Concerned With "Process" As Much As "Product"

2. As Well as Recording What People Say, You Can Observe Their Interactions and Their Products (if There is One)

3. Types of Groups: Natural Groups, Focus Groups, Group Task Exercises with Locally Available Materials (Mapping, Diagraming, Ranking, Graphing)


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