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Scrimshaw: You mention some sort of biochemical indicator that might go along with hormonal change. Do you have any specific candidates in mind?
James: Acute stress induces cortisol production but in conditions of relative energy constraint, my work with Shetty shows that urinary noradrenalin could be a possible marker. With HPLC systems scores of samples could be measured in a day. However, evidence is now emerging that the liver responds to relative energy restraint by producing a series of organic acids as intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism. These have been grouped as gamma lactones; we need to find one which indicates energy deprivation.
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