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TABLE 7: ENERGY COST OF ACTIVITIES IN EARLY AND MID-ADOLESCENCE, GIRLS (13-15 YEARS)

** Ref No.

Sex

Age y

Nut. St.

Ethnic group

Country or region, R/U, D/I

SES

Activity

Methodology

n

Weight (kg)

BMR kcal/min

Energy cost

kcal/min

cal/kg/min

X MBR

SITTING QUIETLY

21

F

13-15

N

Filipino

Philippines
U, D

U

Sitting quietly

K M

13

47 3

#
0.92

1.25 0.49

*
26.6

*
1.36

STANDING QUIETLY

21

F

13-15

N

Filipino

Philippines
U, D

U

Sitting quietly

K M

13

47 3

#
0.92

*
1.32 0.48

*
28.1

*
1.43

WALKING, FREE-VELOCITY, LEVEL GROUND

21

F

13-15

N

Filipino

Philippines
U, D

U

Walking

K M

13

47 3

#
0.92

2.55 0.85

*
54.3

*
2. 77

12

F

13-19

N?

?

U.S.
U, I

?

Walking, free velocity (73 9 m/min)

Douglas bag

28

&
56.4

#&
1.00

*
3.43

*
60.8 8.2

*
3.43

Footnotes:

$ Sex: M = male, F = female. Nutritional status: N = normal, U = underweight, O = obese. Country and region: R = rural, U = urban, D = developing, I = industrialized. Socioeconomic status (SES): L = lower, M = middle, U = upper, n = number of tests or children. BMR = basal metabolic rate. X BMR = multiples of BMR.

* Calculated by B. Torún from authors' data

# BMR calculated from sex and weight according to Schofield et al (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985, p. 71).

& Weight calculated from sex, age and nutritional status using the NCHS standards (WHO, 1983).

** Authors and year of publication in table 9. Complete bibliographic references et the end of the paper.

TABLE 8: ENERGY COST OF ACTIVITIES IN LATE ADOLESCENCE, GIRLS (17-19 YEARS)

** Ref No.

Sex

Age y

Nut. St.

Ethnic group

Country or region, R/U, D/I

SES

Activity

Methodology

n

Weight (kg)

BMR kcal/min

Energy cost

kcal/min

cal/kg/min

X MBR

LYING DOWN AT REST, STUDYING

26

F

19 (18-23)

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Lying at rest

K M

24

47.7 2.2

0.75 0.07

*
0.81 0.07

17.0

*
1.08

27

F

17-19

M

indian

India
U, D

M

Lying at rest or studying

K M

9

43.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
0.82 0.53

*
18.4 11.8

*
1.13

20

F

17-18

O?

white

U.K.
U, I

M?

Resting, lying down

Benedict-Roth resp., or Douglas bag

2

63.0

#
1.03

*
1.10

*
18.3

*
1.07

SITTING QUIETLY, READING, WRITING

21

F

16-19

N

Filipino

Philippines
U, D

U

Sitting quietly

K M

8

48 3

#
0.88

1.28 0.45

26.7

*
1.39

24

F

18-19

N

white

Australia
U, D

M

Sitting

Integrating pneumotachograph (IMP)

4

56.4 10.4

#
0.92 0.10

1.16 0.14

20.9 1.2

*
1.22

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India

M

Sitting at rest studying or writing

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
0.90 0.23

*
20.3 4.3

*
1.23

26

F

19 (18-23)

N

indian

India

M

Sitting at rest or studying

K M

24

47.7 2.2

0.75 0.07

0.88 0.12

*
18.8 3.4

*
1.18

STANDING QUIETLY WITH LITTLE MOVEMENT

21

F

16-19

M

Filipino

Philippines
U

U

Standing quietly

K M

8

48 3

#
0.88

1.57 0.56

32.7

*
1.71

24

F

18-19

N

white

Australia
U, D

M

Standing

Integrating pneumotachograph

4

56.4 10.4

#
0.92 0.10

1.49 0.10

27.1 4.9

*
1.56

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Standing at rest

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

0.90 0.07

20.1 1.5

1.24

26

F

(18-23)

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Standing at rest

K M

24

47.7 2.2

0,75 0.07

0.95 0.05

20.7

1.27

WALKING, FREE VELOCITY, LEVEL GROUND

21

F

16-19

N

Filipino

Philippines
U, D

U

Walking

K M

8

48 3

#
0.88

2.41 0.54

*
50.2

*
2.62

24

F

18-19

N

white

Australia
U, D

M

Walking

Integrating pneumotachograph

4

56.4 10.4

#
0.92 0.10

3.40 0.62

59.6 5.1

*
3.58

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Walking

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

2.09 0.40

46.5 9.0

2.88

26

F

19 (18-23)

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Walking

K M

24

47.7 2.2

0.75 0.07

2.91 0.45

*
61.2 2.6

3.87

20

F

17-18

O?

white

U.K.
U, I

M?

Walking

K M

2

63

#
1.03

*
4.20

*
70

*
4.08

AT SCHOOL OR LIGHT WORK

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Standing during laboratory work or dissection

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
1.22 0.35

*
27.2 7.8

*
1.68

26

F

19 (18 23)

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Standing laboratory work

K M

24

47.72.2

0.75 0.07

*
1.24 0.18

*
26.0 4.7

*
1.65

28

F

16.8 0.8 (16.0-17.8)

6-N
11-O

?

U.S.
U, I

?

Classroom activities, 106 minutes

Heart rate - VO2

10

60.3

#
1.03

1.89 0.46

31.4

1.83

24

F

19

N

white

Australia
U, D

M

Laboratory and office work

Integrating pneumotachograph

2

50.4

#
0.80

1.46

29.2

*
1.82

LIGHT AND MODERATE HOUSEHOLD WORK

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Sweeping floor; washing cloths

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
2.60

*
57.9

*
3.57

26

F

19 (18-23)

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Sitting, household work

K M

24

47.7 2.2

0.75 0.07

2.21 0.37

45.7 9.1

2.94

LEISURE TIME, PLAY OF MODERATE INTENSITY

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Dancing, jumping, running, parading

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
2.24 1.01

*
50.0 22.4

*
3.08

28

F

16.8 0.8 (16.0-17.8)

6-N
11-O

?

U. S.
U, I

?

After school, including play, for 300 minutes

Heart rate - VO2

10

60.3

#
1.03

1.92 0.45

*
31.9

*
1.86

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Physical education class: 25 min activity + 28 minutes leisure

" "

10

60.3

#
1.03

2.57 0.59

*
42.6

*
2.49

RUNNING, EXERCISE, SPORTS

24

F

18

N

white

Australia
U, D

M

Climbing stairs

Integrated pneumotachograph

1

70.8

#
1.20

7.10

100

*
5.92

27

F

17-19

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Ascending and descending stairs

K M

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
3.46 0.73

*
77.0 16.2

*
4.75

27

"

"

"

"

"

"

Riding bicycle

"

9

44.3 6.6

0.73 0.13

*
3.40 0.53

*
75.8 11.9

*
4.68

26

F

19 (18-23)

N

indian

India
U, D

M

Ascending and descending stairs

K M

24

47.7 2.2

0.75 0.07

*
3.02 0.83

*
61.9 16.7

*
4.02

20

F

17-18

O?

white

U.K.
U, I

M?

Step test, 10 min. at 15 steps/min. 2.4 m stool

K M

2

63.0 1

#
1.03

*
4.00

*
66.7

*
3.88

Footnotes:

$ Sex: M = male, F = female. Nutritional status: N = normal, U = underweight, O = obese. Country and region: R = rural, U = urban, D = developing, I = industrialized. Socioeconomic status (SES): L = lower, M = middle, U = upper, n = number of tests or children. BMR = basal metabolic rate. X BMR = multiples of BMR.

* Calculated by B. Torún from authors' data

# BMR calculated from sex and weight according to Schofield et al (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985, p. 71).

& Weight calculated from sex, age and nutritional status using the NCHS standards (WHO, 1983).

** Authors and year of publication in table 9. Complete bibliographic references et the end of the paper.

Table 9. Authors and year of publication of numerical references in Tables 1 to 8

1. DUGGAN and MILNER, 1986a.
2. DUGGAN and MILNER, 1986b.
3. TORUN, CHEW and MENDOZA, 1983.
4. MENDOZA and TORUN, unpublished data.
5. SPURR, REINA and BARAC-NIETO, 1986.
6. SPADY, 1980.
7. TAYLOR, LAMB, ROBERTSON and McLEAD, 1948a.
8. TAYLOR, PYE, CALDWELL and SOSTMAN, 1949.
9. TAYLOR, PYE, ELLIS and GODSHALL, 1951.
10. TAYLOR, PYE and CALDWELL, 1948b.
11. LERCH, 1973.
12. WATERS, HISLOP, THOMAS and CAMPBELL, 1983.
13. GANDRA and BRADFIELD, 1971.
14. CULLUMBINE, 1950.
15. BRADFIELD, CHAN, BRADFIELD and PAYNE, 1971a.
16. BEDALE, 1923.
17. BANERJEE and SAHA 1982.
18. BANERJEE and SAHA 1972.
19. LEGUN and MOLTSCHANOWA, 1935.
20. MAHADEVA, PASSMORE and WOOLF, 1953.
21. GUZMAN, unpublished data.
22. BHATTACHARYA and BANERJEE, 1963.
23. KNUTTGEN, 1967.
24. McNAUGHTON and CAHN, 1970.
25. MOORE, POND and KORSLUND, 1966.
26. BANERJEE, BARUA and GHOSH, 1961.
27. BANERJEE and MAHINDRA, 1962.
28. BRADFIELD, PAULOS and GROSSMAN, 1971b.

Table 10 also suggests that the energy cost of sedentary activities while sitting, expressed as multiple of BMR, was greater in industrialized countries among 7- to 14-year-old boys. In addition to the caveats mentioned above, it should be noted that these differences are largely or exclusively based on studies by TAYLOR et al. (1948a, 1949, 1951), whose data on the energy costs of sedentary and light activities of boys (Tables 2 and 3), and girls (Table 6) were higher than similar activities assessed by other investigators in developing and industrialized countries, specially when expressed as multiples of BMR. This could be due to methodological reasons, since Taylor and collaborators were the only investigators who calculated energy expenditures from the carbon dioxide produced by children in an indirect calorimetry chamber, and some experiments were done with more than one child in the chamber (TAYLOR et al., 1948b).

Adequately designed comparative studies must be done to confirm whether there are, in fact, differences in the energy cost of activities of children with different racial, geographic, socioeconomic or nutritional backgrounds. In adults, GEISSLER and ALDOURI (1985) found that the energy costs of standardized sedentary activities (lying down, sitting, standing) measured in persons who lived in Britain, were 10-17% higher in English and Greek individuals than in Asians and negroid Africans.


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