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4.2. Geographic or racial differences

The data summarized in Table 10 are similar in developing and industrialized countries when expressed per unit of body weight (cal/kg/min). But when they are expressed as multiples of BMR, there is a tendency for the energy cost of non-sedentary activities of 7- to 16-year-old children to be higher in industrialized than in developing countries. Where data were available for similar activities in both developing and industrialized countries, the mean energy costs (X BMR) were higher among the latter in 7 of 9 instances (Wilcoxon's rank test: p < 0.05). This, however, should be viewed with caution because of differences in methodology, lack of standardization in the activities performed, socioeconomic conditions of the children, the small number of studies in each category of activities, and the small number of children in some studies. There were no differences in the energy cost of the activities assessed among older adolescent girls in developing and industrialized countries, and there were no data to compare older adolescent boys or children under 7 years of age.

TABLE 1: ENERGY COST OF ACTIVITIES OF PRESCHOOL-AGED BOYS AND GIRLS (1.5-6 YEARS)

** Ref No.

Sex

Age y

Nut. St.

Ethnic group

Country or region, R/U, D/I

SES

Activity

Methodology

n

Weight (kg)

BMR kcal/min

Energy cost

kcal/min

cal/kg/min

X MBR

LYING DOWN, RESTING

1

M

2.4 1.6 (0.5-6.5)

N
U

black

Kenya
R?, D

L

RMR, lying down, several times throughout the day.

Ventilated hood

35 in
20 children

11.2 3.7 (8.0-16.0)

#
0.48

*
0.51

45.3 6.7

*
1.06

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Post-prandial, lying down

" "

35 in
20 children

11.2 3.7 (8.0-16.0)

#
0.48

*
0.51

50.2 8.2

*
1.17

2

M

2.2 1.2 (1.1-5.0)

U

black

Kenya
R?, D

L

RMR, lying, several times of day

" "

17

10.2 (6.1-16.8)

#
0.48

*
0.51

45.4 5.9

*
1.06

3

M
F

2.6 0.7 (1.5-4)

N

Mayan, white, mixed

Guatemala
U, D

L

Lying awake, resting or playing in bed

Douglas bag

131 in
23 ch.

11.2 1.4

0.43

0.49

44 6

1.16

SITTING

"

M
F

2.6 0.7 (1.5-4)

N

Mayan, white, mixed

Guatemala
U, D

L

Sitting quietly

Douglas bag

65 in
11 ch.

11.2 1.4

0.43

0.53

78 6

1.24

WALKING, FREE VELOCITY, LEVEL GROUND

"

M
F

2.6 0.7 (1.5-4)

N

Mayan, white, mixed

Guatemala
U, D

L

Walking, level ground, their own pace

Douglas bag

52 in
8 ch.

11.2 1.4

0.43

0.88

78 6

2.05

WALKING UPHILL

3

M
F

2.6 0.7 (1.5-4)

N

Mayan, white, mixed

Guatemala
U, D

L

Walking uphill, constant ramps

Douglas bag

134 in
23 ch.

11.2 1.4

0.43

1.12

98 11

2.58

ASCENDING AND DESCENDING RAMPS AND STAIRS

"

M
F

2.6 0.7 (1.5-4)

N

Mayan, white, mixed

Guatemala
U, D

L

Ascending and descending ramps

" "

44 in
7 ch.

11.2 1.4

0.43

0.98

87 7

2.29

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Climbing stairs

" "

34 in
6 ch.

11.2 1.4

0.43

1.06

94 8

2.47

RIDING TRICYCLE INDOORS, SLOWLY

"

M

3.5

N

Mayan

Guatemala
U, D

L

Riding tricycle, indoors, slowly

Douglas bag

11 in
1 child

11.2

0.43

0.82

73 5

1.92

Footnotes:

$ Sex: M = male, F = female. Nutritional status: N = normal, U = underweight, O = obese. Country and region: R = rural, U = urban, D = developing, I = industrialized. Socioeconomic status (SES): L = lower, M = middle, U = upper, n = number of tests or children. BMR = basal metabolic rate. X BMR = multiples of BMR.

* Calculated by B. Torún from authors' data

# BMR calculated from sex and weight according to Schofield et al (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985, p. 71).

& Weight calculated from sex, age and nutritional status using the NCHS standards (WHO, 1983).

** Authors and year of publication in table 9. Complete bibliographic references et the end of the paper.

TABLE 2: ENERGY COST OF ACTIVITIES OF SCHOOL AGED BOYS (7-12 YEARS)

** Ref No.

Sex

Age y

Nut. St.

Ethnic group

Country or region, R/U, D/I

SES

Activity

Methodology

n

Weight (kg)

BMR kcal/min

Energy cost

kcal/min

cal/kg/min

X MBR

LYING DOWN, QUIETLY

4

M

7.4-8.9

N

ladino

Guatemala
U, D

L

Lying quietly

Douglas bag

14

21.0 1.9

#
0.68 0.03

0.74 0.06

35 4.0

1.08

SITTING QUIETLY, READING, WRITING, PLAYING

"

M

7.4-8.9

N

ladino

Guatemala
U, D

L

Sitting, reading, writing, resting

Douglas bag

14

21.0 1.9

#
0.68 0.03

0.81 0.07

38 3.9

1.19

5

M

6-8

N

latin?

Colombia
U, D

L

Sitting quietly

" "

19

21.8 1.4

0.73 0.07

*
0.85

*
39.2

*
1.16

"

"

"

U

"

"

"

" "

" "

14

19.4 2.3

0.68 0.07

*
0.80

*
41.7

*
1.18

"

M

10-12

N

latin?

Colombia
U, D

L

Sitting quietly

Douglas bag

23

32.4 3.3

0.87 0.12

*
1.02

*
31.4

*
1.17

"

"

"

U

"

"

"

" "

Douglas bag

26

25.9 2.6

0.79 0.11

*
0.92

*
35.9

*
1.16

6

M

9.7 1.0 (8.0-11.5)

N

white?

Canada
I

M?

Sitting quietly

Open circuit

22

33.4 5.9

#*
0.86

1.22 0.10

36.5 3.0

*
1.41

7

M

6.5-8.3

N

"varied"

U.S.
U, I

L

Quiet play: checkers, puzzles, games

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

19 in
6 ch.

21.6

0.72

1.12

51.7 7.3

*
1.55

"

"

9.4-11.1

"

"

"

"

" " " "

" "

29 in
6 ch.

28.8

0.76

1.25

43.3 2.8

*
1.62

8

M

9.3-11.5

N

?

U.S.
U, I

L
M

Sitting, listening to the radio

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

10

37.2

0.90

1.30

34.5 4.5

*
1.44

8

M

9.3-11.5

N

?

U.S.
U, I

M

Sitting and singing

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

10 in
6 ch.

37.2

0.90

1.37

37.2 4.9

*
1.34

9

M

8.8-10.9

N

white?

U.S.
U, I

M

Sitting and drawing

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

27 in
12 ch.

34.2

0.85

1.21

35.5 4.6

*
1.40

STANDING QUIETLY OR WITH LITTLE MOVEMENT

8

M

9.3-11.4

N

white?

U.S.
U, I

L
M

Standing and singing

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

11 in
8 ch.

37.2

0.90

1.45

39.2 4.2

*
1.58

10

M

9.7-10.7

N

white

U.S.
U, I

L
M

Standing and drawing

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

11 in
7 ch.

35.1

0.83

1.87

53.2 8.4

*
2.24

STANDING AND MOVING

4

M

7.0-8.9

N

ladino

Guatemala
U, D

L

Standing, bending and tossing a ball

Douglas bag

14

21.0 1.9

#
0.68 0.03

1.47 0.18

69 10.3

2.15

10

M

9.7-10.7

N

white

U.S.
U, I

L
M

Dressing and undressing continuosly for 10'

Indirect calorimetry chamber; VCO2; assumed RQ = 0.82

11 in
7 ch.

35.1

0.83

2.51

71.5 13.5

3.02

WALKING, FREE VELOCITY, LEVEL GROUND

4

M

7,0-8.9

N

ladino

Guatemala
U, D

L

Walking, 62 m/min

Douglas bag

14

21.0 1.9

#
0.68 0.03"

1.84 0.25

88 8.0

2.70

11

M

5-13?

N

?

U.S.
U, I

?

Walking, free-velocity

" "

33

36.4?

#*
0.91

*
2.79

76.6 10.1

*
3.07

12

M

6-12

N?

?

U.S.
?, I

?

Walking, free-velocity (71 8 m/min)

Douglas bag

34

&
29.7

#& 0.81

*
2.26

&
76.2 10.1

*
2.79

WALKING FAST, UPHILL OR CARRYING A LOAD

4

M

7.0-8.9

N

ladino

Guatemala
U, D

L

Walking; 75 m/min.

Douglas bag

14

21.0 1.9

#
0.68 0.03

2.28 0.19

106 7.9

3.34

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Walking, 59 m/min, carrying 4.5 kg load

" "

14

21.0 1.9

#
0.68 0.03

2.27 0.25

105 10.5

3.31

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Walking uphill, approx. 15 degrees, 54 m/minute

" "

14

21.0 1.9

0.68 0.03

2.54 0.20

118 7.6

3.71

LEISURE TIME, PLAY OF MODERATE INTENSITY

13

?

10.2
(7-13)

U?

latin

Brazil
R, D

L

4 hours after school; activities not described

Heart rate-V02

37 in
19 ch.

25.7 5.1

#
0.75

1.74 0.64

67.7

*
2.32

14

M

10

U?

Ceylonese

Ceylon
U, D

?

Playing in school grounds, limited by Douglas bag

Douglas bag

25

24.0

0.64

*
1.47

*
61.2

*
2.30

15

M

8.4 (7-10)

N

white

U.K.
U, I

U

1 h play + 30 min recess in school + 30 minutes of lunch

Heart rate-V02

54

&
28.5

#&
0.80

3.0

&
105.3

*
3.75

16

M

10

N

white

U.K.
U, I

?

Workshop

Douglas bag

?

&
31.5

#&
0.84

2.41

&
76.5

*
2.87

16

M

10

N

white

U.K.
U, I

?

Games

" "

?

&
31.5

#&
0.84

3.97

&
126.0

*
4.73

AT SCHOOL (CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES, RECESS)

13

?

10.2

U?

latin

Brazil
R, D

L

4 hours in school, including 45 min. at play

Heart rate-VO2

71 in
19 ch.

25.7 5.1

#
0.75

1.41 0.46

54.9-

1. 18

15

M

8-4 (7-10)

N

white

U.K. U, I

U

280 min of classroom activities, AM and PM

" "

54

&
28.5

#&
0.80

*
2.40

&
84.2

*
3.00

Footnotes:

$ Sex: M = male, F = female. Nutritional status: N = normal, U = underweight, O = obese. Country and region: R = rural, U = urban, D = developing, I = industrialized. Socioeconomic status (SES): L = lower, M = middle, U = upper, n = number of tests or children. BMR = basal metabolic rate. X BMR = multiples of BMR.

* Calculated by B. Torún from authors' data

# BMR calculated from sex and weight according to Schofield et al (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985, p. 71).

& Weight calculated from sex, age and nutritional status using the NCHS standards (WHO, 1983).

** Authors and year of publication in table 9. Complete bibliographic references et the end of the paper.

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