Contents - Previous - Next
Anderson E, Hutchings B, Jansen J & Nyholm N (1982): Ugeskrift for Laeger 144, 1760-1765.
Ashcroft MT & Lovell HA (1964): Heights and weights of Jamaican children of various racial origins. Trop. Geogr. Med. 4, 346-353.
Bogin B (1988): Patterns of human growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bogin B (1991): Measurement of growth variability and environmental quality in Guatamalan children. Ann. Hum. Biol. 18, 285-294.
Butler GE, McKie M & Ratcliffe SG (1989): An analysis of the phases of mid-childhood growth by synchronisation of growth spurts. In Auxology 88. Perspectives in the science of growth and development, ed. JM Tanner, pp. 77-84. London: Smith-Gordon.
Cameron N (1979): The growth of London schoolchildren 1904-1966: and analysis of secular trend and intra-county variation. Ann. Hum. Biol. 6, 505-525.
Cernerud L & Lindgren GW (1991): Secular changes in height and weight of Stockholm schoolchildren born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 1963. Ann. Hum. Biol. 18, 497-505.
Chang KSF, Lee MMC, Low WD & Kvan E (1989): Height and weight of southern Chinese children. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 1, 397-408.
Cole TJ (1989): The British, American NCHS, and Dutch weight standards compared using the LMS method. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 1, 397-408.
Cole TJ (1993): Seasonal effects on physical growth and development. In Seasonality and human ecology, eds SJ Ulijaszek & SS Strickland, pp. 89-106. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coleman E, Ulijaszek SJ & Soman CR (1993): Secular increase in body size of children in Kerala, South India. Ann. Hum. Biol. 20, 319.
Danker H, Thiel P & Tsiakalos G (1981): Untersuchungen zur Bevölkerungsbiologie Norddeutschlands. Anthropol. Anz. 39, 82-88.
Eiben OG (1982): The Kormend Growth Study: Body Measurements. Anthropologai Kozlemenyek 26, 181-210.
Eiben OG & Panto E (1986): The Hungarian National Growth Standards. Anthropologai Kozlemenyek 30, 1-40.
Eveleth PB & Tanner JM (1990): Worldwide variation in human growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Foley RA (1987): Another unique species. Harlow: Longman.
Frisancho AR (1990): Anthropometric standards for the assessment of growth and nutritional status. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gerver WJM (1988): Measurement of the body proportions in children. The Oosterwolde Study. Lordgraf: Drukkerij Groenavelt B.V.
Harrison GA & Schmitt LH (1989): Variability in stature growth. Ann. Hum. Biol. 16, 45-51.
Harrison GA, Tanner JM, Pilbeam DR & Baker PT (1988): Human biology. An introduction to human evolution, variation, growth, and adaptability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hermanussen M, Geiger-Benoit K, Burmeister J & Sippell WG (1988): Periodical changes of short term growth velocity ('mini growth spurts') in human growth. Ann. Hum. Biol. 15, 103-109.
Hernandez M, Castellet J, Garcia M, Narvaiza JL, Rincon RM, Ruiz I, Sanchez E, Sobradillo B & Zurimendi A (1985): Curvas de Crecimiento. Madrid: Editorial Garsi.
Hoey HMCV, Tanner JM & Cox LA (1987): Clinical growth standards for Irish children. Acta Paediatr. Scand, (Suppl. 338), 1-31.
Jordan JR (1979): Desarrollo humano en Cuba. La Habana: Scientifico-Tecnica.
Kikuta F & Takaishi M (1987): Studies on physical growth standards for schoolchildren in Japan. Part I. Centile curves for height and weight based on cross-sectional data and a consideration of secular trend of the centile curves. Japanese J. Child Health 46, 27-33.
Kim YS (1982): Growth status of Korean schoolchildren in Japan. Ann. Hum. Biol. 9, 453-458.
King KW, Foucaud J, Fougere W & Severinghaus EL (1963): Height and weight of Haitian children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 13, 106-109.
Kramer PL (1983): Adolescent growth patterns in a northern Italian community. Hum. Biol. 55, 687-706.
Kurniewicz-Witczalowa R, Miesovicz I, Niedzwiecka Z & Pietrzak M (1983): Rozwoj Fizycyny Dzieci i Mlodzieizy Warszawskiej. Warsaw: Institute of Mother and Child.
Lindgren GW & Strandell A (1986): Fysisk utveckling och hälsa. Rapport 4. Institutionen för Pedagogik. Stockholm: Högskolan för Lärarutbildning.
Little MA, Galvin K & Mugambi M (1983): Cross-sectional growth of nomadic Turkana pastoralists. Hum. Biol. 55, 811-830.
Ljung BO, Bergsten-Brucefors A & Lindgren G (1974): The secular trend in physical growth in Sweden. Ann. Hum. Biol. 1, 245-256.
Malcolm LA (1970): Growth and development in New Guinea - A study of the Bundi people of the Madang District. Institute of Human Biology, Papua New Guinea Monograph Series No. 1. Madang: Institute of Human Biology.
Marshall WA (1975): The relationship of variations in children's growth rates to seasonal climatic variations. Ann. Hum. Biol. 2, 243-250.
Martorell R, Mendoza F & Castillo R (1988): Poverty and stature in children. In Linear growth retardation in less developed countries, ed. JC Waterlow, pp. 57-73. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Vol. 14. New York: Raven Press.
Mendez-Castellano H, Lopez Contreras-Blanco M, Landaeta-Jimenez M, Gonzales-Tineo A & Pereira I (1986): Estudio transversal de Caracas. Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatria 49, 111-155.
Meredith HV (1976): Findings from Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America on secular change in mean height of children, youths, and young adults. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 44, 315-326.
Mjönes S (1987): Growth in Turkish children in Stockholm. Ann. Hum. Biol., 337-347.
National Center for Health Statistics (1977): NCHS Growth Curves for Children. Birth - 18 Years. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare Publication No. (PHS), 78-1650. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Peters J & Ulijaszek SJ: Heights and weights of Asian children resident in Leicestershire and Nottingham, Great Britain. Department of Health. Unpublished document.
Prader A & Budlinger H (1977): Body measurements, growth velocity and bone age of healthy children up to 12 years of age (longitudinal growth study, Zurich). Helv. Paeditr. Acta, (Suppl. 37), 5-44.
Prakash S & Cameron N (1981): Skeletal maturity of well-off children and youth in Chandigarh, North India. Ann. Hum. Biol. 7, 175-180.
Prebeg Z (1978): Secular trend in the growth of Zagreb school children and youth. Jugoslavenska Akademija Zvanostiiumjetnosti (Zagreb), RAD 378, 5-25,
Pyke JE (1986): The Australian schools fitness test. Parkside, South Australia: The Australian Council for Health.
Roede MJ & van Wieringen JC (1980): Growth diagrams. Tijdshrift voor Sociale Gezondheidszorg 63, (Suppl. 1985), 1-34.
Rona RJ & Chinn S (1984): The national study of health and growth: nutritional surveillance of primary school children from 1972 to 1981 with special reference to unemployment and social class. Ann. Hum. Biol. 11, 17-28.
Schmitt LH & Harrison GA (1988): Patterns of within-population variability of stature and weight. Ann. Hum. Biol. 15, 353-364.
Sempé M, Pédron G & Roy-Pernot MP (1979): Auxologie: méthode et séquences. Paris: Laboratoire Theraplix.
Shephard RJ, Lavallée H, La Barre R, Rajic M, Jéquier J-C & Volle M (1984): Body dimensions of Quebecois children. Ann. Hum. Biol. 1, 243-352.
Smith DW, Truog W, Rogers JE, Greitzler LJ, Skinner AL, McCann JJ & Harvey MAS (1976): Shifting linear growth during infancy: illustration of genetic factors in growth from fetal life through infancy. J. Pediatr. 89, 225-230.
Spurr GB, Reina JC, Barac-Nieto M & Maksud NG (1982): Maximum oxygen consumption of nutritionally normal white, mestizo, and black Colombian boys 6-16 years of age. Hum. Biol. 54, 553-574.
Tanner JM (1989): Foetus into man. Ware: Castelmead Publications.
Tanner JM, Hayashi T, Preece MA & Cameron N (1982): Increase in length of leg relative to trunk in Japanese children and adults from 1957 to 1977: comparison with British and with Japanese Americans. Ann. Hum. Biol. 9, 411-423.
Togo M & Togo T (1982): Times series analysis of stature and body weight in five siblings. Ann. Hum. Biol. 9, 425-440.
Ulijaszek SJ (1987): Nutrition and anthropometry: with special reference to populations in Papua New Guinea and the United Kingdom. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Van Weiringen JC (1986): Secular growth changes. In Human growth. A comprehensive treatise, vol. 3, eds F Falkner & JM Tanner, pp. 307-331. New York: Plenum Press.
Vercauteren M (1984): Evolution séculaire et normes de croissance chez des enfants Belges. Bulletin Société Royale Belge d'Anthropologie Préhistorique 95, 109-123.
Waaler HT (1984): Height, weight and mortality: the Norwegian experience. Acta Med. Scand, (Suppl. 679),
Wachholder A & Hauspie RC (1986): Clinical standards for growth in height of Belgian boys and girls, aged 2 to 18 years. Int. J. Anthropol. 1, 327-338.
Zemel B & Jenkins C (1989): Dietary change of adolescent growth among the Bundi (Gende-speaking) people of Papua New Guinea. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 1, 709-718.
Zhang X & Huang Z (1988): The
second national growth and development survey of children in China, 1985; children 0 to 7
years. Ann. Hum. Biol. 15, 289-306.
The Y chromosome may be a determinant of stature, and some of the differences that have been observed between populations are more pronounced in females than in males. It was therefore suggested that in Latin America, for example, the Y chromosome may come from the European conquerors, while the X chromosome comes from the Amerindian population (Uauy). In North American blacks, 25% of the population is carrying European genetic markers. The difficulty with this idea is that growth is polygenic, determined by many genes on different chromosomes as well as the Y chromosome.
Reference was then made to the hypothesis of Harrison and his colleagues at Oxford that the variability of height in children may be a measure of environmental stress. Ulijaszek's answer to this was that it may be correct for a sample of children from a large population that is out-breeding, but not if the sample is drawn from a small, inbred population, such as a tribal group. Geneticists use variability as a measure of inbreeding.
The problem that always arises in discussion of the genetic origin of ethnic differences is that different groups have different diets. Thus the dietary patterns are quite different in Northern and Southern Europe, or at least have been until recently. (The question of possible relationships of individual nutrients to linear growth is discussed below, in relation to the papers of Allen, Neumann & van Dusseldorp.)
Another possible approach is through correlations between socio-economic status and growth. Such correlations break down in countries where the socio-economic status is rather uniform, as in Scandinavia. These countries have reached an end-stage when the secular trend has come to a stop, and this might reasonably be regarded as a population that has fully expressed its genetic potential for growth. We cannot be certain about the Asian populations, where the secular trend has not yet come to an end.
Some relevant information may be obtained from studies of migrants. Children who were brought to Norway or Sweden from North Korea or India grew exactly as the Scandinavians, provided that they came before the age of 6 months (Karlberg). On the other hand, Pakistanis in the UK do not show the same convergence to the norm, but this could be attributed to their retaining their original dietary habits. In the UK, in populations of different racial groups, substantial differences in length emerge in the first few months of life (Skuse). This finding recalls the data from Hong Kong presented by Davies at the previous workshop, showing that linear growth diverged significantly from the NCHS standard by about 6 months. The question of whether or not this is a genetic effect remains still open.
The paper had touched on the appropriateness of the NCHS reference and the inexactness of the centiles. There is also the well-known problem that it is based on two different data sets, overlapping from 2 to 3 years, with a constant difference over that period between the measurements of length and height. A new reference is expected to be available from the USA in 4-5 years, based on a new survey currently being carried out. (One might add that a new reference, if it is to be international, should also take account of the very comprehensive data bases that have been published in various European countries in recent years. Ed.)
Contents - Previous - Next