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9.7 References

1. Lifson N & McClintock R (1966) Theory of the use of the turnover rate of body water for measuring energy and material balance. J Theoret Biol; 12: 46-74.

2. Schoeller DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y, Acheson KJ, Baertschi P & Jequier E (1986) Energy expenditure by doubly-labelled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation. Am J Physiol; 250: R823-R830.

3. Coward WA, Prentice AM, Murgatroyd PR et al (1984) Measurement of CO2 and water production rate in man using 2H, 18O-labelled H2O: comparisons between calorimeter and isotope values. In: Human Energy Metabolism: Physical activity and energy expenditure measurements in epidemiological research based on direct and indirect calorimetry. Euro-Nut Report No. 5 (ed AJH van Es) Den Haag: CIP-gegevens Koninklijke: 126-128.

4. Roberts SB, Coward WA, Schlingenseipen K-H, Nohria V & Lucas A (1986) Comparison of the doubly-labelled water (2H218O) method with indirect calorimetry and a nutrient balance study for simultaneous determinations of energy expenditure, water intake and metabolisable energy intake in pre-term infants. Am J Clin Nutr; 44: 315-322.

S. Haggarty P. McGaw BA, James WPT, Ferro-luzzi A, Scaccini, C, Virgilli F & Franklin M (1988) Calculations of isotope flux rates in truly free-living subjects. Proc Nutr Soc; 47: 33A.

6. Wong WW, Lee SL & Klein PD (1987) Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements on microliter samples of urine, plasma, saliva and human milk. Am J Clin Nutr; 45: 905-913.

7. Lifson N, Little WS, Levitt DG & Henderson RM (1975) D218O method for CO2 output in small animals and economic feasibility in man. J Appl Physiol; 39: 657-663.

8. Nagy KA (1980) CO2 production in animals: analysis of potential errors in the doubly-labelled water method. Am J Physiol; 238: R466-P473.

9. Schoeller DA (1983) Energy expenditure from doubly-labelled water: some fundamental considerations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr: 38: 999-1005.

10. Schoeller DA, Dietz W, van Santen E & Klein PD (1982) Validation of saliva sampling for total body water determinations by H218O dilution. Am J Clin Nutr; 35: 591-594.

11. Coward WA (1988) The doubly-labelled water (2H218O) method: principles and practice. Proc Nutr Soc; 47: 209-218.

12. Schoeller DA & Taylor PB (1987) Precision of the doubly-labelled water method using the two-point calculation. Hum Nutr: Clin Nutr; 41C: 215-223.

13. Speakman JR & Racey PA (1986) Measurement of CO2 production by the doubly-labelled water technique. J Appl Physiol; 61: 1200-1202.

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