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1.9 References

1. Lifson N, Gordon GB & McClintock R (1955) Measurement of total carbon dioxide production by means of D218O. J Appl Physiol; 7: 704-710.

2. Lifson N, Gordon GB, Visscher MB & Nier AO (1949) The fate of utilised molecular oxygen and the source of the oxygen of respiratory carbon dioxide, studied with the aid of heavy oxygen. J Biol Chem; 180: 803-811.

3. McClintock R & Lifson N (1957) Applicability of the D218O method to the measurement: of the total carbon dioxide output of obese mice. J Biol Chem; 226: 153-156.

4. McClintock R & Lifson N (1958) Determination of the total carbon dioxide outputs of rats by the D218O method. Am J Physiol; 192: 76-78.

5. McClintock R & Lifson N (1958) CO2 output of mice measured by D218O under conditions of isotope re-entry into the body. Am J Physiol; 195: 721-725.

6. Lee JS & Lifson N (1960) Measurement of total energy and material balance in rats by means of doubly-labelled water. Am J Physiol; 199: 238-242.

7. Lifson N & Lee JS (1961) Estimation of material balance of totally fasted rats by doubly-labelled water. Am J Physiol; 200: 85-88.

8. Lifson N & McClintock R (1966) Theory of the use of the turnover rate of body water for measuring energy and material balance. J Theoret Biol; 12: 46-74.

9. LeFebvre EA (1964) The use of D218O for measuring energy metabolism in Columba livia at rest and in flight. Auk; 81: 403-416.

10. Wood RA, Nagy KA, MacDonald NS, Wakakuwa ST, Beckman RJ & Kaaz H (1975) Determination of oxygen-18 in water contained in biological samples by charged particle activation. Analyt Chem; 47: 646-650.

11. Nagy KA (1975) Water and energy budgets of free-living animals: measurement using isotopically-labelled water. In Environmental physiology of desert organisms Ed NF Hadley. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania USA. pp 227-245.

12. Nagy KA (1982) Energy requirements of free-living iguanid lizards. In Iguanas of the world: Their ecology and conservation Eds GM Burghardt and AS Rand. Noyes Publ, Park Ridge, New Jersey USA. pp 49-59.

13. Nagy KA (1987) Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecol Monogr; 57: 111-128.

14. Lifson N, Little WS, Levitt DG & Henderson RM (1975) D218O method for CO2 output in small animals and economic feasibility in man. J Appl Physiol; 39: 657-663.

15. Schoeller DA & van Santen E (1982) Measurement of energy expenditure in humans by doubly-labelled water method. J Appl Physiol; 53: 955-959.

16. Prentice AM, Coward WA, Davies HL, Murgatroyd PR, Black AK, Goldberg GR, Ashford J, Sawyer M & Whitehead RG (1985) Unexpectedly low levels of energy expenditure in healthy women. Lancet; i: 1419-1422.

17. Klein PD, James WPT, Wong WW, Irving CS, Murgatroyd PR, Cabrera M, Dallosso HM, Klein ER & Nichols BL (1984) Calorimetric validation of the doubly-labelled water method for determination of energy expenditure in man. Hum Nutr: Clin Nutr; 38C: 95-106.

18. Prentice AM, Coward WA, Murgatroyd PR, Davies HL, Cole TJ, Sawyer M, Goldberg GR, Halliday D & McNamara JP (1985) Validation of the doubly-labelled water method for measurement of energy expenditure by continuous whole-body calorimetry over 12 day periods in man. In Substrate and energy metabolism in man Eds JS Garrow and D Halliday. J Libby & Co Ltd. London. p 18.

19. Coward WA & Prentice AM (1985) Isotope method for the measurement of carbon dioxide production rate in man. Am J Clin Nutr; 41: 659-661.

20. Westerterp KR, de Boer JO, Saris WHM, Schoffelen PFM & Ten Hoor F (1984) Measurement of energy expenditure using doubly-labelled water. Int J Sports Med; 5: 74-75 (Supplement).

21. Roberts SB, Coward WA, Schlingenseipen K-H, Nohria V & Lucas A (1986) Comparison of the doubly-labelled water (2H2O-H218O) method with indirect calorimetry and a nutrient-balance study for simultaneous determinations of energy expenditure, water intake and metabolisable energy intake in pre-term infants. Am J Clin Nutr; 44: 315-322.

22. Schoeller DA, Kushner RF & Jones PJH (1986) Validation of doubly-labelled water for measuring energy expenditure during parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr; 44: 291-298.

23. Schoeller DA, Ravussin E, Schutz Y. Acheson KJ, Baertschi P & Jequier E (1986) Energy expenditure by doubly-labelled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation. Am J Physiol; 250: R823-R830.

24. Jones PJH, Winthrop AL, Schoeller DA, Swyer PR, Smith J, Filler RM & Heim T (1987) Validation of doubly-labelled water for assessing energy expenditure in infants. Pediat Res; 21: 242-246.

25. Jones PJH, Winthrop AL, Schoeller DA, Filler RM, Swyer PR, Smith J & Heim T (1988) Evaluation of doubly-labelled water for measuring energy expenditure during changing nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr; 47: 799-804.

26. Westerterp KR, Brouns F, Saris WHM & Ten Hoor F (1988) Comparison of doubly labelled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. J Appl Physiol; 65: 53-56.

27. Delany JP, Schoeller DA & Hoyt RW (1988) Use of doubly-labelled water to measure energy expenditure of special operations soldiers during a four week field training exercise FTX. Fed Am Soc Exp Biol J; 2: 5399 (abstract)

28. Schoeller DA (1988) Measurement of energy expenditure in free-living humans by using doubly-labelled water. J Nutr; 118: 1278-1289.

29. Roberts SB, Coward WA, Ewing G. Savage J. Cole TJ & Lucas A (1988) Effect of weaning on accuracy of doubly-labelled water method in infants. Am J Physiol; 254: R622-R627.

30. Nagy KA (1980) CO2 production in animals: analysis of potential errors in the doubly-labelled water method. Am J Physiol; 238: R466-R473.

31. Nagy KA (1989) Doubly-labelled water studies of vertebrate physiological ecology. In: Stable isotopes in ecological research. Eds PW Rundel, JR Ehleringer and KA Nagy. Springer-Verlag, New York USA. pp 270-287.

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