Contents - Previous - Next

Literature cited

Garnet, A B., Weiss, I. P., Sotillo, M. V., Ohlrick, E. S., Shkurovich, Z. M. & Cravioto, J. (1978) Abnormal auditory evoked potentials in early infancy malnutrition. Science 201: 450-452.

Bartel, P. R., Griesel, R. D., Burnett, L. S., Freiman, l. Rosen, E. U. & Geelhuysen, J. (1978) Long-term effects of kwashiorkor on psychomotor development. S. Afr. Med. J.53: 360-362.

Berglund, G. & Rabo E. (1973) A long-term follow-up investigation of patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis - with special reference to the physical and mental development. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 62: 125-129.

Birch, H. G., Pineiro, C., Alcalde, E., Toca,T. & Cravioto, J. (1971) Relation of kwashiorkor in early childhood and intelligence at school age. Pediatr. Res. 5: 579-585.

Brockman, L. M. & Ricciuti, H. N. (1971) Severe protein calorie malnutrition and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood. Dev. Psychol.54: 312-319.

Carmona da Mota, H., Antonio, A. M, Leitao, G. & Porto, M.; 1990)

Late effects of early malnutrition. Lancet 1: 1158 (letter).

Celedon, J. M., Csaszar, D., Middleton, J. & De Andraca, I. (1980) The effect of treatment on mental and psychomotor development of marasmic infants according to age of admission. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 24: 27-35.

Champakam, S. A., Srikantia, S. G. & Gopalan, C. (1968) Kwashiorkor and mental development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.21: 844-852. Chandler, A., Walker, S., Connolly, K. & Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (1993) The short-term effects of giving breakfast on the cognitive function of school children. West Ind. Med. J.42 (Suppl. 1): 38 (abs.).

Colombo, M., de la Parra, A. & Lopez, l. (1992) Intellectual and physical outcome of children undernourished in early life is influenced by later environmental conditions. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 34: 611 -622.

Cravioto, J. (1977) Not by bread alone: effect of early malnutrition and stimuli deprivation on mental development. In: Perspectives in Pediatrics (Ghai, O. P., ed.), pp 87-104. Interprint, New Delhi, India.

Cravioto, J. & Arrieta, R. (1979) Stimulation and mental development of malnourished infants. Lancet 2: 899 (letter).

Cravioto, J. & Arrieta, R. (1986) Nutrition, mental development and learning. In: Human Growth (Faulkner, F. & Tanner, J. M., eds.), vol. 3, pp. 501-536. Plenum Publishing, New York, NY and London, UK.

Cravioto, J. & Robles, B. (1965) Evolution of adaptive and motor behavior during rehabilitation from kwashiorkor. Am. J. Ortho. Psychiat. 35: 449-464.

Ellis, C. E. & Hill, D. E. (1975) Growth, intelligence and school performance in children with cystic fibrosis who have had an episode of malnutrition during infancy. J. Pediatr. 87: 565-568.

Evans, D., Moodie, A. & Hansen, J. (1971) Kwashiorkor and intellectual development. S. Afr. Med. J. 45: 1413-1462.

Galler, J. R. & Ramsey, F. (1987) A follow-up study of the influence of early malnutrition on development. V. Delayed development of conservation (Piaget). J. Am. Acad. Child Adol. Psychiat. 26: 23-27.

Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., Forde, V., Salt, P. & Archer, E. (1987a) Long-term effects of early kwashiorkor compared with marasmus. II. Intellectual performance. J. Pediatr. Gastro. Nutr. 6: 847-854.

Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., Morley, D. S., Archer, E. & Salt, P. (l 990) The long-term effects of early kwashiorkor compared with marasmus. IV. Performance on the national high school entrance examination. Pediatr. Res. 28: 235-239.

Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., Salt, P. & Archer, E. (1987b) Long-term effects of early kwashiorkor compared with marasmus. III. Fine motor skills. J. Pediatr. Gastro. Nutr. 6: 855-859.

Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., Solimano, G. & Lowell, W. (1983b) The influence of early malnutrition on subsequent behavioral development. II. Classroom behavior. J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiat. 22: 16-22.

Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F., Solimano, G., Lowell, W. & Mason, E. (1983a) The influence of early malnutrition on subsequent behavioural development. I. Degree of impairment of intellectual performance. J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiat. 22: 8-15.

Geber, M. & Dean, R. F. (1956) The psychological changes accompanying kwashiorkor. Courrier 6: 6-15.

Graham, G. G &Adrianzen, B. (1979) Status in school of Peruvian children severely malnourished in infancy. In: Behavioral Effects of Energy and Protein Deficits (Brozek, J., ea.) pp. 185-194. NIH Pub. 9-1906, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DC.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (1982) The relationship between developmental levels and different types of malnutrition in children. Hum. Nutr. Clin. Nutr. 36c:319-320.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (1984) The social background of childhood malnutrition. In: Malnutrition and Behaviour: Critical Assessment of Key Issues (Brozek, J. & Schürch, B., eds.), pp. 358-374. Nestle Foundation, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Grantham-McGegor, S. (1987) Field studies in early nutrition and later achievement. In: Early Nutrition and Later Achievement (Dobbing, J., ed.), pp. 128-174. Academic Press, London, UK.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Meeks Gardner, J., Walker, S. & Powell, C. (1990) The relationship between undernutrition, activity levels and development in young children. In: Activity, Energy Expenditure, and Energy Requirements of Infants and Children (Schürch, B. & Scrimshaw, N., eds.), pp. 361-384. Nestle Foundation, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Powell, C. & Fletcher, P. (1989a) Stunting, and episode of severe malnutrition and mental development in young children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 403-409.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Powell, C., Walker, S., Chang, S. & Fletcher, P. (1994) The long-term follow up of severely malnourished children who participated in an intervention program. Child Dev. 65: 428-439.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Schofield, W., & Haggard, D. (1989b) Maternal child interaction in survivors of severe malnutrition who received psychosocial stimulation. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 45-52.

Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Stewart, M. E., & Desai, P. (1978) A new look at the assessment of mental development in young children recovering from severe malnutrition. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 20: 773-778.

Hill, A. B. (1965) The environment and disease association or causation. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 58: 295-300.

Hertzig, M., Birch, H. Richardson, S. & Tizard, J. (1972) Intellectual levels of school children severely malnourished during the first two years of life. Pediatr. 49: 814-824.

Hoorweg, J. (1976) Protein-energy malnutrition and intellectual abilities. S. Gravenhage Parijs, Mouton.

Hoorweg, J. & Stanfield, J. P. (1976) The effects of protein energy malnutrition in early childhood on intellectual and motor abilities in later childhood and adolescence. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 18: 130-150.

Klein, P. S., Forbes, G. B. & Nader, P. R. (1975) Effects of starvation in infancy (pyloric stenosis) on subsequent learning abilities. Pediatrics 87: 8-15.

Lester, B. M. (1975) Cardiac habituation of the orienting response to an auditory signal in infants of varying nutritional status. Dev. Psychol. 2: 432-442.

Lester, B. M. (1976) Spectrum analysis of the cry sounds of well nourished and malnourished infants. Child. Dev. 47: 237-241.

Levitsky, D. & Barnes, R. H. (1970) The effects of early malnutrition on the reaction of adult rats to aversive stimuli. Nature 225: 468-469.

Lloyd-Still, J. D., Hurtwitz, I., Wolff, P. H. & Shwachman, H. (1974) Intellectual development after severe malnutrition in infancy. Pediatrics 54: 306-311.

Lucas, A., Morley, R., Cole, T. J., Gore, S. M., Lucas, P. J., Crowle, P., Pearse, R., Boon, A. J. & Powell, R. (1990) Early diet in preterm babies and developmental status at 18 months. Lancet 335: 1477-1481.

McLaren, D. S., Yatkin, V. S., Kanawati, A. A., Sabagh, S. & Kadi, Z. (1973) The subsequent mental and physical development of rehabilitated marasmic infants. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 17: 273281.

Meeks Gardner, J., Grantham-McGregor, S. M. & Chang, S. (1993) Behaviour of stunted children and the relationship to development. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 52: 36A (abs.).

Moodie, A. D., Bowie, M. D., Mann, M. D. & Hansen, J. D. L. (1980) A prospective 15-year follow-up study of kwashiorkor patients. Part II. Social circumstances, educational attainment and social adjustment. S. Afr. Med. J.58: 677-680.

My Lien, N., Meyer, K. K. & Winick, M. (1977) Early malnutrition and "late' adoption: a study of their effects on the development of Korean orphans adopted into American families. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1734- 1739.

Nwuga, V. C. B. (1977) Effect of severe kwashiorkor on intellectual development among Nigerian children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1423-1430.

Pereira, S. M., Sundaraj, R. & Begum, A. (1979) Physical growth and neuro-integrative performance of survivors of protein-energy malnutrition. Br. J. Nutr. 42: 165-171.

Pollitt, E. & Granoff, D. (1967) Mental and motor development of Peruvian children treated for severe malnutrition. Rev. Interam. Psicol. 7: 93-102.

Ramalingaswami, P., Vazier, S., Satyanarayana, K. & Natasinga Rao, B. S. (1993) Undernutrition in early years and cognitive functioning in adult years. XV International Congress of Nutrition, Adelaide. Abstracts Book I, p. 344, Smith Gordon (abs.).

Richardson, S. A. (1974) The background histories of school children severely malnourished in infancy. Adv. Pediatr. 21: 167195.

Richardson, S. A., Birch, H. G., Grabie, E. &Yoder, K. (1972) The behavior of children in school who were severely malnourished in the first two years of life. J. Health Soc. Behav. 13: 276-283.

Richardson, S. A., Birch, H. G. & Hertzig, M. E. (1973) School performance of children who were severely malnourished in infancy. Am. J. Ment. Defic. 77: 623-632.

Richardson, S., Birch, H. & Ragbeer, C. (1975) The behaviour of children at home who were severely malnourished in the first two years of life. J. Biosoc. Sci. 7: 255-256.

Rush, D. (1984) The behavioural consequences of protein-energy deprivation and supplementation in early life: an epidemiological perspective. In: Human Nutrition: A Comprehensive Treatise (Galler, J., ed.), pp. 119-154. Plenum Press, New York, NY.

Simeon, D. T. & Grantham-McGregor, S. (1989) Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children of differing nutritional status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49: 646-653.

Srikantia, S. G. (1979) Repercussions of early malnutrition in later cognitive function. In: Behavioral Effects of Energy and Protein Deficits (Brozek, J., ed.), NIH No. 79-1906, pp. 164171. Department of Health, Educacion and Welfare, Washington, DC.

United Nations Children's Fund (1993) State of the World's Children, 1993. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition (1992) Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Vol. 1, Global and Regional Results. Lavenham Press Ltd, Lavenham, UK.

United Nations Subcommittee on Nutrition (1993) Refugee nutrition information system report on the nutrition situation of African refugee and displaced populations. Lavenham Press Ltd., Lavenham, U.K.

Valman, H. (1974) Intelligence after malnutrition caused by neonatal resection of ileum. Lancet 1: 425-427.

Williams, C. (1933) A nutritional disease of childhood associated with a maize diet. Arch. Dis. Child 1933: 423-433.

Winick, M., Meyer, K. K. & Harris, R. C. (1975) Malnutrition and environmental enrichment by early adoption. $Science 190: 1173-1175.

Yatkin, V. S. & McLaren, D. S. (1970) The behavioural development of infants recovering from severe malnutrition. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 14: 25-32.

Contents - Previous - Next