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Introductory statement

Reference

Summary of the scientific evidence on the nature and determinants of child development and their implications for programmatic interventions with young children

Introduction

The size of the problem

The nature of early childhood development

Determinants of child development

Programmatic actions

Programme characteristics and content

Parents

Training

Evaluation and assessment

The nature and nurture of child development

Abstract

Introduction

Processes that promote or hinder developmental competence

Development is multidetermined

Specificity

Covariance among developmental influences

Temporal moderation

Implications for intervention

What not to do

Principles for effective and cost-effective interventions

Integrate

Target

Across time

Acknowledgements

References

Assessing intellectual and affective development before age three: a perspective on changing practices

Abstract

Introduction

Myths concerning intelligence testing in early childhood

Principles of assessment

Interdependence of development

Multiple sources and multiple components

Assessment sequence

Child-caregiver relationships

Framework of typical development

Emphasis on organizing and functional capabilities of the child

Identify current and emerging competencies and strengths

Collaborative process

Assessment as the beginning of intervention

Reassessment as an ongoing process

Conclusions

References

Epidemiology of child developmental problems: The extent of the problems of poor development in children from deprived backgrounds

Abstract

Introduction

Scope of the problem

Minorities in poverty

Effects of poverty on development

Epidemiological evidence

Epidemiological measures of effect

Single-component models

Nutrition

Short-term interventions

Long-term interventions

Health

Education

Multicomponent models

Model programmes

Developing countries

Practical applications

Head start

Integrative services model

Linda ray intervention program

Cognition and language

Behaviour

Home environment

Discussion

Developmental epidemiology

Implications for public policy

References

Stability, predictive validity, and sensitivity of mental and motor development scales and pre-school cognitive tests among low-income children in developing countries

Abstract

Objectives

Data source

Infant development scales: mental

Infant development scales: motor

Test administered during pre-school period

Tests administered during school period

Results

Infant development scales: mental

Infant development scales: motor

Pre-school assessments (36 to 84 months)

Prediction of performance at school age

Discussion and conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Effects of health and nutrition on cognitive and behavioural development in children in the first three years of life. Part 1: Low birthweight, breastfeeding, and protein-energy malnutrition

Abstract

Introduction

Low birthweight

Studies of children in the first two years

Studies of children two to seven years of age

Studies of children 7 to 17 years of age

Other outcomes

Interactions with the environment

Conclusions about the effects of IUGR on development

Breastfeeding

Study design

Short-term effects of breastfeeding

Long-term effects of breastfeeding

Mechanism

Fatty acids

Growth

Immune response

Maternal-child interaction

Conclusions and policy implications

Protein-energy malnutrition

Severe malnutrition

Moderate stunting and wasting

Cross-sectional associations between height and development

Behaviour

Other functional associations

Longitudinal associations

Supplementation studies

Preventive supplementation studies

Intervention with stunted or wasted children

Vulnerable age

Mechanism

Conclusions about mild-to-moderate stunting

Policy implications and recommendations

References

Effects of health and nutrition on cognitive and behavioural development in children in the first three years of life. part 2: infections and micronutrient deficiencies: iodine, iron, and zinc

Abstract

Introduction

Mechanism

Parasitic infections

Diarrhoea and respiratory infections

Iodine deficiency

Observational studies

Intervention studies

Conclusions about iodine deficiency and development

Policy implications

Iron deficiency

Iron-deficiency anaemia and concurrent development

Longitudinal studies of development of children who had iron-deficiency anaemia in infancy

Conclusions from longitudinal studies

Treatment trials in children under two years of age

Conclusions from preventive trials

Iron-supplementation studies of anaemic school-aged children

Mechanisms

Summary of findings and conclusions on iron deficiency and child development

Policy implications

Zinc deficiency

Other nutritional deficiencies

Vitamin A deficiency

General conclusions and policy implications

References

A developmental function of motor activity among nutritionally at-risk children

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Research design

Location

Communities and day-care centres

Subjects

Variables and measurements

Results

Developmental function of motor activity (12 to 30 months)

Energy intake and anthropometry

Processes involved in the regulation of motor actions

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Overview of early child-care and education programmes and Jamaican case studies

Abstract

Introduction

Intervention programmes in the United States

Programmes for children under two years of age: predominantly centre based

Programmes for children under two years of age: predominantly home based

Programmes for children over two years of age: Centre based, home based, or both

Long-term follow-up after intervention

Intervention programmes in developing countries

Studies in various countries

Jamaican studies

Summary and conclusions

Developed countries

Developing countries

References

The role of care in programmatic actions for nutrition: Designing programmes involving care

Abstract

Introduction

Defining care

Care during complementary feeding

Adaptation to psychomotor abilities for self-feeding

Feeding responsively

The feeding situation

Psychosocial care

Responsiveness to developmental milestones and cues

Attention, affection, and involvement

Encouragement of autonomy, exploration, and learning

The research and development process for care

Evidence for the effectiveness of care in interventions

Effects of care on child growth and development: correlational studies

Effects of care on child development: experimental studies or efficacy studies

Effects of care on child growth: experimental studies or efficacy studies

Incorporating care in the design of programmes

Examples of programmes that involve care

Current work on care

Conclusions and recommendations

References

World bank support for early childhood development: Case studies from Kenya, India, and the Philippines

Abstract

Introduction

Situation analysis of the development status of children

Kenya

India

Philippines

Situation analysis of existing programmes

Kenya

India

Philippines

Project objectives

Kenya

India

Philippines

Project components, coverage, and costs

Kenya

India

Philippines

Monitoring and evaluation

Cross-cutting issues and implications for future programmes

Building on home-grown early childhood development models

Targeting the poorest

Delivery of an integrated package of services

Partnerships

Monitoring and evaluation

Key challenges

References

Economic considerations for analysis of early childhood development programmes

Abstract

Introduction

Analytical frameworks for considering the determinants of and the impact of human resources investments in childhood development

Direct production function impact of childhood development

Household demands for human resource investments such as in child development

Estimation issues in ascertaining the determinants of and the impact of investments in childhood development

Estimated relations related to childhood development

Estimation problems in attempting to ascertain the determinants and impact of childhood development

Possible resolutions for estimation problems

Framework for policy choices related to childhood development

Brief definitions of basic motives for policy changes

Specific examples of possible inefficiencies in childhood development

Endnotes

References

Books received

News and notes

UNU food and nutrition programme

Note for contributors

Note à l’intention des auteurs

Nota para los posibles autores

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