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Food and Nutrition Bulletin - Volume 19, Number 2

Table of Contents

Published by the United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Editorial address:

Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Charles Street Sta., P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA
Tel: (617) 227-8747
Fax: (617) 227-9405
Subscription address:
International Nutrition Foundation, Inc.
Charles Street Station, P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA
Tel: (617) 227-8747. Fax: (617) 227-9405
The Food and Nutrition Bulletin incorporates and continues the PAG Bulletin of the former Protein-Calorie Advisory Group of the United Nations system and is published quarterly by the United Nations University Press in collaboration with the United Nations ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition.

All correspondence concerning the content of the Bulletin, comments, news, and notices should be sent to the editor at the Boston editorial office address given above.

All material in the Bulletin may be reproduced freely provided acknowledgement is given and a copy of the publication containing the reproduction is sent to the editorial office.

Editorial policy

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin is intended to make available policy analyses, state-of-the-art summaries, and original scientific articles relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world. It is not intended for the publication of scientific articles of principal interest only to individuals in a single discipline or within a single country or region. Notices of relevant books and other publications will be published if they are received for review. The Bulletin is also a vehicle for notices of forthcoming international meetings that satisfy the above criteria and for summaries of such meetings.

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin also serves as the principal outlet for the publication of reports of working groups and other activities of the UN ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition (SCN) and its Advisory Group on Nutrition. The SCN itself is a focal point for coordinating activities of FAO, WHO, UNICEF, the UNU, UNESCO, the World Bank, the world Food Programme, the World Food Council, the United Nations Environment Programme, and other bodies of the United Nations system that have an interest in food and nutrition.

Submissions. Unsolicited manuscripts of articles of the type published in this and previous issues may be sent to the editor at the Boston office address given above. They must be typed, double-spaced, with complete references and must include original copy for any figures used (see the “Note for contributors” in the back of this issue).

Any disciplinary or conceptual approach relevant to problems of world hunger and malnutrition is welcome, and controversy over some of the articles is anticipated. Letters to the editor are encouraged and will be printed if judged to have an adequate basis and to be of sufficient general interest.

Peer review. The Bulletin is a peer-reviewed journal. Every article submitted first receives editorial review. If it is consistent with the editorial policy and is not obviously deficient in some way, it is sent to two or sometimes three experienced and knowledgeable reviewers. Occasionally a paper may be returned to the authors by the editor with suggestions for improvement before it is submitted to the reviewers.

If two reviewers agree that the paper should be published in the Bulletin, it is accepted and either sent immediately for copy-editing or returned to the authors for consideration of suggestions from the reviewers and the editor. If both reviewers agree that the paper should not be accepted, the editor writes a personal letter to the authors explaining the reason and enclosing the comments of the reviewers anonymously. If the reviewers do not agree with each other, either the paper is sent to a third reviewer or a decision is taken by the editor. In these cases, the authors are usually given a chance to respond to the reviewers’ comments.

Disclaimer. It is expressly understood that articles published in the Bulletin do not necessarily represent the views of the United Nations University, the UN ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition, or any United Nations organization. The views expressed and the accuracy of the information on which they are based are the responsibility of the authors. Some articles in the Bulletin are reports of various international committees and working groups and do represent the consensus of the individuals involved; whether or not they also represent the opinions or policies of the sponsoring organizations is expressly stated.

The United Nations University (UNU) is an organ of the United Nations established by the General Assembly in 1972 to be an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training, and the dissemination of knowledge related to the pressing global problems of human survival, development, and welfare. Its activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, development in a changing world, and science and technology in relation to human welfare. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and postgraduate training centres, with its planning and coordinating headquarters in Tokyo.

The United Nations University Press, the publishing division of the UNU, publishes scholarly books and periodicals in the social sciences, humanities, and pure and applied natural sciences related to the University’s research.

Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Editor: Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw
Assistant Editor: Ms. Edwina B. Murray
Manuscripts Editor: Mr. Jonathan Harrington
Senior Associate Editor - Clinical and Human Nutrition:
Dr. Cutberto Garza, Director and Professor, Division of Nutritional Sciences,
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA
Senior Associate Editor - Food Science and Technology:
Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Institute de Investigaciones, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Associate Editors:
Dr. Abraham Besrat, Senior Academic Officer, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan
Dr. Hernán Delgado, Director, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Guatemala City, Guatemala
Dr. Joseph Hautvast, Secretary General, IUNS, Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Dr. Peter Pellett, Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA
Dr. Zewdie Wolde-Gabreil, Director, Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Professor and Institute Consultant, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 19, no. 2
© The United Nations University, 1998

United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
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Table of Contents


Overview: Rationale and elements of a successful food-fortification programme

Extent of the micronutrient problem
Fortification as a prevention and control approach
Fortification programmes
Constraints to successful programmes
Facilitating factors in successful programmes

Technical aspects of food fortification

Definition of food fortification
Effectiveness of food-fortification programmes
Nutrient stability

Food fortification: Safety and legislation

International environment affecting trade in food
Trends in food-hygiene regulation
Sampling and analysis at import
FAO technical consultation on food fortification: Technology and quality control
General principles for addition of nutrients to foods
Conclusions and recommendations of the consultation
Food legislation
Quality assurance and control

Key economic issues

What role should industry and government play?
Compulsory or voluntary fortification?
What are the economic benefits and costs of food fortification?
Current experience with cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis

Forging partnerships among industry, government, and academic institutions for food fortification

Key issues
A survey
Opportunities arising from an international dialogue
Barriers to overcome and future action

Fortification of sugar with vitamin A

Fortification procedure
Premix stability
Sugar fortification
Cost of fortification
Newer technologies for sugar fortification
Fortification of sugar with iron
Impact of vitamin A-fortified sugar on the population

New issues in developing effective approaches for the prevention and control of vitamin a deficiency

Assessment and analysis
Causes of vitamin a deficiency
Consequences of vitamin a deficiency
Food-diversification programmes
Using vitamin A capsule programme evaluation to monitor progress in food-diversification and food-fortification programmes
The future

Update on rice fortification in the Philippines

History of rice fortification in the Philippines
Current status
Problems and constraints
Future prospects

History of fortification of margarine with vitamin A in the Philippines

Choosing a processed food to be fortified
Advocacy and collaboration
Stability study
Field trial
Using the research results

Iron and micronutrients: Complementary food fortification


Triple fortification of instant noodles in Thailand

Micronutrient-deficiency problems in Thailand
Government-industry-academic partnership
Instant noodle market in Thailand
Feasibility study of triple fortification of instant noodles
Preparation stage before product distribution
Post-marketing activities

Multiple fortification of beverages

Rationale for multiple fortification
Appropriate fortification
Vitamin stability
Micronutrient bioavailability and organoleptic quality of fortified foods
Mineral interactions and bioavailability
Designing micronutrient premixes
Quality control in food fortification

Fortification of salt with iodine

Prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine-deficiency disorders in China
Government actions to control iodine-deficiency disorders
Effectiveness of use of iodized salt
Manufacture and use of iodized salt
Major problems in iodine fortification

Summary of panel discussions

Getting started on food fortification
Educational advocacy, policy, and legislation
Monitoring and evaluation

Manila declaration on food fortification

List of participants

Books received