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Food and Nutrition Bulletin - Volume 18, Number 3

Table of Contents

September 1997

The development of a protocol to study the interactions of nutrition, aging, and urbanization in developing countries: cross-cultural Research on the Nutrition of Older Subjects (CRONOS)

Edited by Rainer Gross, Noel W. Solomons, Corazon V. C. Barba, Lisette C. P. G. M. de Groot, and Geok Lin Khor

Published by the United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

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The Food and Nutrition Bulletin incorporates and continues the PAG Bulletin of the former Protein-Calorie Advisory Group of the United Nations system and is published quarterly by the United Nations University Press in collaboration with the United Nations ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition.

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Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Editor: Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw
Assistant Editor: Ms. Edwina B. Murray
Manuscripts editor: Mr. Jonathan Harrington
Senior Associate Editor-Clinical and Human Nutrition:
Dr Cutberto Garza, Director and Professor, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA
Senior Associate Editor-Food Science and Technology:
Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Instituto de Investigaciones, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Associate Editors:
Dr. Abraham Besrat, Senior Academic Officer, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan
Dr. Hernán Delgado, Director, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Guatemala City, Guatemala
Dr. Joseph Hautvast, Secretary General, IUNS, Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Dr. Peter Pellett, Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA
Dr. Zewdie WoldeGebriel, Director, Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Professor and Institute Consultant, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 3

© The United Nations University, 1997

United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan
Tel.: (03) 3499-2811
Fax: (03) 3406-7345

ISSN 0379-5721

Table of Contents





Overview of ageing, urbanization, and nutrition in developing countries and the development of the reconnaissance project

Ageing in developing countries
Urbanization in developing countries
Ageing and urbanization: The case of the Philippines
History of the reconnaissance project and the development of CRONOS
The workshop in Wageningen

Pitfalls and experiences in nutritional research on the elderly in developing countries

What are the barriers to gerontological investigation in developing countries?
What are the demographic issues?
Evolution of age pyramids
What are the human resource limitations?
The evolution of training opportunities
What are the material resource limitations?
Development of research
What are the methodological or disciplinary limitations?
Specific pitfalls relevant to developing countries
The evolution of knowledge and understanding of the elderly
What is the present experience?
What is the future of gerontological research?
Bibliography 1
Bibliography 2

Experience of the EURONUT-SENECA study in design, implementation, and data analysis

Data collection and measurement error
Dietary interview
Blood collection
Coordination and cooperation

The IUNS study of food habits in later life: A critique

Operational background to the IUNS-FHLL study
Study aims
Comparisons between the two studies
Parameters of interest and survey methods
Acknowledgements to IUNS-FHLL study investigators

Analysis of the reconnaissance project. Phase 1: The community

This was not KAP
Reconnaissance is more than RAP
Questionnaires used during the study of the community
Informants to be consulted during the study of the community
Summary of the first phase of the Reconnaissance project

Analysis of the Reconnaissance project. Phase 2: The individual

Principal findings of interest

Analysis of the appropriateness and feasibility of the Reconnaissance project interview questions and measurements

The examination process
Issues for consideration when revising individual questions

The process of revision of the protocol

Group 1. Nutritional status and biological variables
Group 2. Food intake and food security variables; food behaviour and patterns variables
Group 3. Health status assessment variables
Group 4. Socio-demographic and social behaviour variables
Group 5. Sampling frame and enrolment procedures for sites and individuals within sites

CRONOS (Cross-Cultural Research on the Nutrition of Older Subjects). Third edition

1. Objective of CRONOS
2. Sampling

2.1 Population to be studied
2.2 Sampling procedure

3. Supervision
4. Format of data collection forms
5. Content of data collection forms

5.1 demographic and socio-economic variables
5.2 social behaviour and practices
5.3 Self-perceived health
5.4 Illness and illness impact
5.5 Impairments
5.6 Physical activities (optional)
5.7 Risk factors
5.8 Cognitive functioning
5.9 24-hour recall
5.10 Food behaviour and practices (optional)
5.11 Food security (optional)
5.12 Anthropometric measurements
5.13 Blood parameters
5.14 Physical performance test (optional)

6. Examples of survey forms

6.1 Supervision form
6.2 Individual form

7. List of variable codes
8. Collection of qualitative data (RAP)

Annex: CRONOS Collaborating Centres

News and notes

Note for contributors

Note a l’intention des auteurs

Nota pare los posibles autores

Food and Nutrition Bulletin subscription form

Title of interest