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Food and Nutrition Bulletin - Volume 18, Number 1

Table of Contents


Published by the United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Editorial address:

Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Charles Street Sta., P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA
Tel: (617) 227-8747
Fax: (617) 227-9405
Subscription address:
United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
53-70, Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku
Tokyo 150, Japan
Tel: (03) 3499-2811. Fax: (03) 3406-7345.
Telex: J25442. Cable: UNATUNIV TOKYO.
The Food and Nutrition Bulletin incorporates and continues the PAG Bulletin of the former Protein-Calorie Advisory Group of the United Nations system and is published quarterly by the United Nations University Press in collaboration with the United Nations ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition.

All correspondence concerning the content of the Bulletin, comments, news, and notices should be sent to the editor at the Boston editorial office address given above.

All material in the Bulletin may be reproduced freely provided acknowledgement is given and a copy of the publication containing the reproduction is sent to the editorial office.

Editorial policy

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin is intended to make available policy analyses, state-of-the-art summaries, and original scientific articles relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world. It is not intended for the publication of scientific articles of principal interest only to individuals in a single discipline or within a single country or region. Notices of relevant books and other publications will be published if they are received for review. The Bulletin is also a vehicle for notices of forthcoming international meetings that satisfy the above criteria and for summaries of such meetings.

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin also serves as the principal outlet for the publication of reports of working groups and other activities of the UN ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition (SCN) and its Advisory Group on Nutrition. The SCN itself is a focal point for coordinating activities of FAO, WHO, UNICEF, the UNU, UNESCO, the World Bank, the World Food Programme, the World Food Council, the United Nations Environment Programme, and other bodies of the United Nations system that have an interest in food and nutrition.

Submissions. Unsolicited manuscripts of articles of the type published in this and previous issues may be sent to the editor at the Boston office address given above. They must be typed, double-spaced, with complete references and must include original copy for any figures used (see the “Note for contributors” in the back of this issue).

Any disciplinary or conceptual approach relevant to problems of world hunger and malnutrition is welcome, and controversy over some of the articles is anticipated. Letters to the editor are encouraged and will be printed if judged to have an adequate basis and to be of sufficient general interest.

Peer review. The Bulletin is a peer-reviewed journal. Every article submitted first receives editorial review. If it is consistent with the editorial policy and is not obviously deficient in some way, it is sent to two or sometimes three experienced and knowledgeable reviewers. Occasionally a paper may be returned to the authors by the editor with suggestions for improvement before it is submitted to the reviewers.

If two reviewers agree that the paper should be published in the Bulletin, it is accepted and either sent immediately for copy-editing or returned to the authors for consideration of suggestions from the reviewers and the editor. If both reviewers agree that the paper should not be accepted, the editor writes a personal letter to the authors explaining the reason and enclosing the comments of the reviewers anonymously. If the reviewers do not agree with each other, either the paper is sent to a third reviewer or a decision is taken by the editor. In these cases, the authors are usually given a chance to respond to the reviewers’ comments.

Disclaimer. It is expressly understood that articles published in the Bulletin do not necessarily represent the views of the United Nations University, the UN ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition, or any United Nations organization. The views expressed and the accuracy of the information on which they are based are the responsibility of the authors. Some articles in the Bulletin are reports of various international committees and working groups and do represent the consensus of the individuals involved; whether or not they also represent the opinions or policies of the sponsoring organizations is expressly stated.

The United Nations University (UNU) is an organ of the United Nations established by the General Assembly in 1972 to be an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training, and the dissemination of knowledge related to the pressing global problems of human survival, development, and welfare. Its activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, development in a changing world, and science and technology in relation to human welfare. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and postgraduate training centres, with its planning and coordinating headquarters in Tokyo.

The United Nations University Press, the publishing division of the UNU, publishes scholarly books and periodicals in the social sciences, humanities, and pure and applied natural sciences related to the University’s research.


Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw
Assistant Editor:
Ms. Edwina B. Murray
Editorial Consultant:
Ms. Sarah Jeffries
Senior Associate Editor - Clinical and Human Nutrition:
Dr. Cutberto Garza, Director and Professor, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA
Senior Associate Editor - Food Science and Technology:
Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Instituto de Investigaciones, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Associate Editors:
Dr. Abraham Besrat, Senior Academic Officer, United Nations University Tokyo, Japan

Dr. Hernán Delgado, Director, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Guatemala City, Guatemala

Dr. Joseph Hautvast, Secretary General, IUNS, Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Dr. Peter Pellett, Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA

Dr. Zewdie WoldeGebriel, Director, Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Professor and Institute Consultant, Mahidol University Bangkok, Thailand

Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 1

© The United Nations University, 1997
United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan
Tel.: (03) 3499-2811
Fax: (03) 3406-7345
Telex: J25442

ISSN 0379-5721

Table of Contents

Nutrition review

Nutrition and health from womb to tomb

Examples of nutritional disorders with lasting consequences
Synergism of nutrition and infection
Control and eradication of infectious diseases
Disappearance of some classic deficiency diseases
Diet and chronic disease
Significance of maternal nutrition
Foetal and infant nutrition and adult disease
Lessons from a study of civil war veterans
Lifestyle and the ageing process
Some significant non-nutritional behaviours of health importance
Physical environment and health
Improving on nature

Public health nutrition

Female nutritional status across the life-span in sub-Saharan Africa. 1. Prevalence patterns

Macronutrient disorders
Micronutrient deficiencies
Gender differences in malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa
Appendix 1. Selected findings concerning information on female nutritional status in sub-Saharan Africa

Female nutritional status across the life-span in sub-Saharan Africa. 2. Causes and consequences

Major determinants of female nutritional status
Functional consequences: Taking a life-cycle perspective

Blood cholesterol and triglycerides in adolescent Egyptian girls: Relation to anthropometric measurements

Subjects and methods

Daily versus weekly iron supplementation: Programmatic and economic implications for Indonesia

Prevalence of anaemia in different population groups
Current iron supplementation programmes in Indonesia
Weekly dosing in iron supplementation
Costs of iron supplementation

Food policy

Mitigating the effects of drought through food security and nutrition monitoring: Lessons from Malawi

Historical context of drought management in Southern Africa
The FSNM system
Use of FSNM information in emergency planning: The case of the 1991-92 drought
Lessons from the use of FSNM for drought management in Malawi
Concluding remarks
Appendix 1. Chronology of events in the management of the 1991-92 drought in Malawi

Food science

Sources and forms of iron in Nigerian foods and effects of processing on availability

Materials and methods

Books received

News and notes

UNU Programme on Food and Nutrition for Human and Social Development