Contents - Previous

This is the old United Nations University website. Visit the new site at

Food science

Amylase activity of some roots and sprouted cereals an beans

Khin Maung Manna. Khin Maung Naing, and Hla Pe


Locally available cereals, beans, and roots that can be used as amylase-rich food (ARF) were studied Three types of beans-green mung beans, black mung beans, and soya beans-and three types of common cereals-paddy, glutinous rice, and corn (maize)- were germinated, dried, and powdered, and their amylase activity was studied at 30°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C. Three types of roots-sweet potato, dasheen tare, and potato-were cut into small pieces, dried, and powdered, and their amylase activity studied at the same temperatures. Five grams of powder prepared from germinated paddy, glutinous rice, corn, or green mung beans were mixed with 95 g of rice powder to get 100 g of mixed powder. Gruels containing 25% solid were prepared from the mixtures, and their viscosity was measured Gruels containing ARF prepared from germinated corn had the lowest viscosity, and, as the amylase activity of germinated corn is not destroyed at high temperatures, it may be the most suitable ARF in rice-eating countries.


In many developing countries, early weaning foods consist of starchy tubers such as cassava and sweet potato, or cereals such as corn, rice, wheat, sorghum, and millet [1-3]. In Myaumar (Burma) boiled rice powder or boiled rice and oil are used. Infants are given these foods in the form of gruels, that is, boiled with water. When tubers and cereals are prepared this way, the starchy structure binds a large amount of water, which results in gruel of high viscosity. When they are made with a high enough solid concentration to provide adequate calorie density, they tend to be thick and viscous, making them difficult for a young child to eat. Adding water to lower the concentration of solid matter makes the gruel thinner and easier to eat, but it reduces the calories per unit volume so that it becomes difficult for the child to consume enough to get the energy it needs.

Industrial manufacture of cereal-based weaning foods reduces dietary balk through various technologies, including the use of amylase enzyme. However, such commercial foods are rather expensive and not available to children in rural areas. The traditional procedure of germinating or malting reduces the dietary bulk of cereal-based weaning food considerably. This is because the amylase enzyme that is developed and activated in the germination process rapidly breaks down the starch in the cereal and reduces its water-holding capacity. As a result, the water trapped in the gel structure is released and produces a more liquid gruel.

There have been many reports on weaning food formulation using amylase-rich foods (ARFs) such as malted wheat [2] and sorghum [1]. However, such ARFs are not easily available in our country. Therefore, we tried to determine the amylase activity of roots and of sprouted cereals and beans that are readily available and can be prepared by mothers in rural as well as urban areas for use as ARF.

Materials and methods

Preparation of ARF

Paddy (Oryza sativa) and glutinous rice (Oryza glutinosa) were soaked in water for 36-48 hours, spread between two layers of wet straw, and left to germinate. After three to five days small roots were seen and were left to grow for another two days.

Corn (maize, Zea mays), black mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), and soya beans (Glucine max) were soaked in water for eight hours and spread between two layers of wet cloth. After about 24-48 hours small roots were seen and wore left to grow for another two days. The sprouts of green mung beans were used, as they are sold in the market. All these germinated cereals and beans were dehulled, and roots were separated and dried in the oven at 40°C for about 48 hours. We did not find any fungal growth during the preparation.

Three common roots and tubers-sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), dasheen tare (Colocassa antiquaram), and potato (Solarum tuberosum)-were washed and cut into small pieces and dried in the oven at 40°C for 48 hours. When dried, they were ground to obtain a fine powder.

Measurement of amylase activity

The amylase enzyme activity of the ARFs was measured at 30°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C by using the method of Bernfield [4].

FIG. 1. Effect of temperature on the amylase activity of selected germinated cereals, germinated beans, and roots and a tuber

Measurement of viscosity

We prepared ARF-rice powder blends by mixing 5 g of the ARF with 95 g of rice powder. We then mixed 25 g of the blended powder with 100 ml of distilled water and prepared slurries as described by Golpadas et al. [2]. The slurries made from the blends using paddy ARF, glutinous rice ARF, corn ARF, and green mung bean ARF were semi-liquid and pourable. Those prepared from the other ARF blends were semi-solid. The viscosity of the slurries with semi-liquid consistency was measured by a rotary-type viscometer.


Among the beans, soya beans- had the highest amylase activity and black mung beans the lowest. Their activity was highest at 60°C and decreased at higher temperatures. Corn had the highest activity of all the ARFs studied, and roots and tubers the lowest (fig. 1).

The effect of concentrations on the viscosity of rice powder slurry is shown in figure 2. The viscosity preferred for feeding small children can be at 10-15 g% concentration. The amylase activity was highest for the ARFs prepared from paddy, glutinous rice, corn, and green mung beans, and was not destroyed by high temperature.

Figure 3 shows the viscosity of the slurries prepared from rice powder and four different types of ARF mixtures. We can get the viscosity preferred by small children (1,000-3,000 cps) [5] if we use corn ARF, paddy ARF, or glutinous rice ARF and green mung bean ARF.


The preferred viscosity for gruels for feeding small children is between 1,000 and 3,000 cps, which is semi-liquid [5]. A 25 % rice-powder slurry has a semi-solid consistency, and, to get 100 kcal, a child has to eat 100 ml of it, which is a large amount to consume. If it is diluted to a 10% concentration, it will be semi-liquid, with a viscosity of 1,000 cps, and the child can eat it easily; but now it will take 250 ml to provide the same 100 kcal as the 100 ml of 25% gruel. So, in order to get enough energy from such a gruel, the child must either consume a very great volume or eat a very viscous food.

Amylase-rich foods can reduce viscosity without increasing volume. The foods we studied are widely available in rural as well as urban areas. They have their advantages and disadvantages. Paddy and glutinous rice are cheaper than other ARFs, but they are not easily available in urban areas. Green mung bean sprouts are easily available in urban areas but are not cheap and are not so available in rural areas. Corn is available both in urban and in rural areas, and it has the best reducing power. In rice-eating countries, therefore, a mixture of 5% of corn ARF with rice powder prepared in a 25 g% gruel will yield a high-calorie food with a viscosity suitable for small children.


We thank U Saw Win and the staff of the University Research Center, University of Yangon, for their help in measuring the viscosity of the slurries.

FIG. 3. Viscosity of slurries prepared from blends of rice powder with 5% of various ARFs


1. Brandtzaeg B. Malleshi NG, Svanberg U. Desikachar HSB, Mellander O. Dietary bulk as a limiting factor for nutrient intake in pro-school children: studies of malted flour from ragi, sorghum and green gram. J Trop Pediatr 1981;27:184-9.

2. Gopaldas T. Deshpande S. John C. Studies on a wheat based amylase-rich food. Food Nutr Bull 1988;10(3): 55-9.

3. Mosha AC, Svanberg U. The acceptance and intake of balk-reduced weaning food: the Luganga village study. Food Nutr Bull 1990;12(1):69-74.

4. Bernfield P. Amylase alpha and beta. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO, eds. Methods in enzymology. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1955:149-51.

5. Mosha AC, Svanberg U. Preparation of weaning foods with high nutrient density using flour of germinated cereals. Food Nutr Bull 1983;5(2):10-14.


Books received

Community nutrition for eastern Africa. Ann Burgess et al. AMREF, Nairobi, Kenya, 1994. (ISBN 9966-874-10-0) 280 pages, paperback. US$8.

This is a low-cost, practical manual for community nutrition and health workers, and home economists, agricultural field workers, local teachers, as well as community development and social workers. It is highly recommended for such workers in Africa, for which the text and illustrations are specifically designed. It describes tasks needed to improve food security and nutrition at the community and family level. Following a brief overview of the present nutrition situation in eastern Africa, it describes signs and the importance of common nutritional disorders, the causes of these disorders, and what workers need to learn about communities in order to help improve their nutrition.

In suggesting how families can be helped to be well nourished, it stresses the importance of dealing with the causes of malnutrition and of helping people to assess, analyse, and cope with their nutrition problems themselves. It explains the close relationship between malnutrition and diseases and discusses how to reduce the burden of infection. A final section describes the role of community workers in such nutrition programmes as growth monitoring, supplementary feeding, and the control of vitamin A, iron, and iodine deficiencies. An appendix gives a basic overview of the function, needs, and sources of nutrients, and the use and interpretation of anthropometric data.

Nutrition for developing countries. Felicity Savage King and Ann Burgess. ELBS with Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1992. (ISBN 0-19442446-4) 461 pages, paperback. £3.95.

This is the second edition of an excellent bock about how food is produced, processed, handled, sold, prepared, shared, eaten, digested, absorbed, and used by the body. With the same senior author as the foregoing, it is so simply and clearly written and so well illustrated with simple line drawings that it is an ideal textbook for secondary-school and university level courses in developing countries. It is a practical guide for nutrition workers, health workers, and home economists as well as agricultural extension officers, social workers, school teachers, and students concerned with practical nutrition. It also explains how nutrition workers in comunities and schools can help families with nutrition problems, treat malnutrition, and provide nutrition education and training.

Social marketing vitamin A-rich foods in Thailand. Suttilak Smitasiri, George A. Attig, Aree Valyasevi, Sakorn Dhanamitta, and Kraisid Tontisirin. Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, 1993. (ISBN 974-587-516-3) 66 pages, paperback.

Vitamin A deficiency continues to be a public health problem in many developing countries long after xerophthalmia and keratomalacia from this cause are no longer a public health problem. This is of concern because of evidence that it contributes to infant mortality from infectious diseases. There is general agreement that the periodic distribution of vitamin A capsules, while effective for those in research, is not sustainable without external assistance and rarely achieves satisfactory coverage. Under these circumstances food-based solutions to vitamin A deficiency have been recommended, but there are few successful examples. An exception is the pilot programme in a district in north-east Thailand, reported in this slim publication from the Institute of Nutrition of Mahidol University, which guided it. The programme succeeded in its objectives of increasing the dietary intake of vitamin A-rich foods, raising the vitamin A status of preschool children and pregnant and lactating mothers, and developing a model for improving vitamin A status through nutrition communication. How this was achieved is described in detail.

Food additive toxicology. Edited by Joseph A. Maga and Anthony T. Tu. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994. (ISBN 0-8247-9245-9) 542 pages, hardback. US$175.

There are now approximately 2,800 natural and synthetic compounds legally approved for incorporation into over 20,000 different food items in order to improve their flavour, colour, convenience, stability, or nutritional qualities in the United States alone. Many other countries have the counterpart of the US Food and Drug Administration to approve food additives. Many of these additives are important for the preservation of foods. This volume reviews the nature of the toxicological evidence for food acidulants, antioxidants, food colours, curing agents, flavouring agents, flavour potentiators, salts, modified carbohydrates, and antimicrobial agents. It is an excellent introduction to the topic and has adequate reference information for most common additives and can also be used as a textbook.

Safety and adequacy of irradiated food. WHO, Geneva, 1994. (ISBN 92-4-156162-9) 161 pages, paperback. SwF 42 (in developing countries, SwF 29.40).

The safety and availability of nutritious foods are essential components of primary health care, and food irradiation, properly used, can help the fight against food losses and food-borne diseases. The World Health Organization is concerned that the unwarranted rejection of food irradiation because of a lack of understanding hampers its use in those countries likely to benefit most. This report of a WHO expert consultation authoritatively reviews the history and mechanisms of food irradiation, its multiple applications, chemical reactions, toxicology, nutritional quality, and post-irradiation detection methods. A final chapter reviews the concerns often expressed about irradiated food and addresses each of them before coming to clear positive recommendations for its appropriate use.

Seafood: Effects of technology on nutrition. George M. Pigott and Barbee W. Tucker. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990. (ISBN 0-8247-7922-3) 362 pages, hardback. US$89.75 (US and Canada), US$103 (all other countries).

The use of seafood continues to increase in most developing and industrialized countries, and an increasing proportion of it is being processed and handled in a sophisticated manner. This book provides a detailed discussion of the relation of modern handling and processing methods to the nutritional value of the products. Determining the latter depends on detailed information on aspects of food technology involved in catching, processing, and marketing them. The book is designed to be useful to persons with a wide range of backgrounds who have reason to be interested in this topic.

Disease control priorities in developing countries. Edited by Dean T. Jamison, W. Henry Mosley, Anthony R. Measham, and José Luis Bobadilla. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993. (ISBN 0-19-520990-7). 746 pages, hardback. US $79.95

This large volume, of 746 oversize pages, covers in practical detail specific recommendations for prevention and control of all of the infectious, nutritional, and chronic degenerative diseases that are likely to be public health problems in developing countries. It covers well the causes of death from these diseases and the nature of the epidemiological transition. The World Bank provided the resources and WHO the intellectual guidance for this monumental exercise that enlisted contributions from outstanding health experts worldwide. Despite its cost, it should be on the shelf of everyone concerned with health policies and disease control in developing countries.


Note for contributors

The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns (see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the front cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication-which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality. Contributors should review recent issues of the Bulletin for content and style.

Language. Contributions may be in English. French. Or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used. the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.

Format. Manuscripts should be typed. double-spaced. with ample margins. Only an original typed copy or a photocopy of equivalent quality should be submitted: photocopies on thin or shiny paper are not acceptable.

When a manuscript has been prepared on a word processor, it will he appreciated if a floppy disk. either 31/2 - inch or 51/4 - inch, can be included with the manuscript. with an indication of the disk format and the word-processing program used.

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words.

Abstract. An abstract of not more that 150 words should he included with the manuscript. The abstract should state the purposes of the study or investigation. basic procedures (study subjects or experimental animals and observational and analytical methods). main findings (give specific data and their statistical significance if possible), and the principal conclusions. Emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Do not cite references or use abbreviations or acronyms in the abstract.

Tables and figures. Tables and figures should be on separate pages. Tables should be typed double-spaced. Submit only original figures. original line drawings in India ink. or glossy photographs. Labels on the figures should be typed or professionally lettered or printed. not handwritten.

Photographs. Ideally photographic materials should be submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not he returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement. Preferably all measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article, also double-spaced. Unpublished papers should not be listed in references. nor should papers submitted for publication hut not yet accepted.

Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text and in tables and figure legends by arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets. References cited only in

tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the first mention of the relevant table or figure in the text. Be sure references are complete.

Reference citations should follow the format illustrated below.

Journal reference

-standard journal article (list all authors):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

-corporate author:
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:1 19-25.

Book or other monograph reference

-personal author(s):
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

-corporate author:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3rd cd. Littleton. Mass, USA: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

-editor, compiler, chairman as author:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E. eds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'evolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.

-chapter in book:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. In: Desai AR. ed. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and highest degree. the name of departments and institutions to which the work should he attributed, the name and address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript, and sources of support for the work. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere-in the same or modified form-a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts will not be returned unless specifically requested. Proofs will be sent to the authors only in exceptional circumstances.

Contributions should be addressed to:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Charles Street Sta., P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA

Note à l'intention des auteurs

La rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin recherche des articles traitant de sujets correspondant à ses thèmes (voir au vérso de la couverture la politique éditoriale de cette revue). La remise d'un manuscrit ne signifie pas sa publication, qui dépend de l'opinion de la rédaction sur son intérêt et sa qualité. Les auteurs sont invités à se pencher sur les récents numéros du Bulletin pour prendre connaissance de son contenu et de son style.

Langues. Les manuscrits peuvent être rédigés en anglais, en français ou en espagnol, et dan ces deux derniers cas, l'auteur ajoutera. si possible, un résumé en anglais.

Format. Les manuscrits doivent être dactylographiés, en double interligne. avec une marge suffisante. Ne doit être présenté qu'un exemplaire original dactylographié ou une photocopie de qualité équivalente.

Lorsqu'un manuscrit a été préparé sur un appareil de traitement de texte, un disque ou de 3.50 ou de 5.25 pouces devrait dans toute la mesure possible y être joint en précisant son format et le programme utilisé.

Longueur. Les manuscrits ne doivent pas. ordinairement, dépasser 4,000 mots.

Résumé. Un résumé de 150 mots maximum doit accompagner le manuscrit. Il devra donner les buts de l'étude ou des recherches, les procédures de base (sujets de l'étude ou animaux expérimentaux et méthodes d'observation et d'analyse), les principaux résultats (fournir des données spécifiques et indiquer dans la mesure du possible leur importance statistique) ainsi que les principales conclusions. Veuillez mettre en relief les aspects nouveaux et importants de l'étude ou des observations. Dans le résumé, ne citez aucun ouvrage de référence et n'utilisez ni abréviations ni sigles.

Tableaux et figures. Ils doivent être reportés sur des feuillets séparés. Les tableaux doivent être dactylographiée en double interligne. Veuillez soumettre uniquement des figures originales, des dessins à l'encre de Chine ou des photographies tirées sur papier glacé. Les labels qui apparaissent sur les figures doivent être dactylographiés ou gravés ou imprimés de manière professionnelle et non pas écrits à la main.

Photographies. En principe, les matériaux photographiques doivent être remis sous forme de négatifs noir et blanc ou d'épreuves noir et blanc sur papier brillant. Sauf demande expresse les photographies ne seront pas renvoyées.

Unités de mesure. On utilisera de préférence le système métrique. Si d'autres systèmes sont utilisés, l'équivalant métrique doit être indiqué.

Références. Les références doivent apparaître à la fin de l'article, en double interligne également. Les documents non publiés ne doivent pas figurer dans les références pas davantage que les documents présentés à des fins de publication mais qui n'ont pas encore été acceptés.

Veuillez numéroter les références dans l'ordre où elles sont mentionnées dans le texte. Identifiez au moyen d'un chiffre arabe placé entre crochets les références dan le texte, les tableaux et les légendes des figures. Les références cités uniquement dans les tableaux ou les légendes des figures doivent être numérotées en fonction de la première fois où il est fait mention du tableau ou de la figure approprié dans le texte. Assurez-vous que les références sont complètes.

Les références citées doivent suivre le format décrit ci-dessous.


-article de journal type (énumérer tous les auteurs):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D. Ottenberger A. Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

-auteur d'une société:
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976:36:119-25.

Livre ou autre monographie

-auteur(s) à titre personnel:
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: expérimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985..

-auteur d'une société:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3e éd. Littleton, Mass. (E.U.): Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

-éditeur, compilateur, président en tant qu'auteur:
5. Medioni J, Boesinger E, éds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson, 1977.

-chapitre d'un ouvrage:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. Dans: Desai AR. éd. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identification. Les auteurs doivent indiquer leur nom complet et leur principal diplôme, le nom des départements et des institutions auxquels le travail doit être attribué, le nom et l'adresse de l'auteur chargé de la correspondance sur le manuscrit ainsi que les sources de financement du travail. Si l'article a déjà été remis auparavant ou est retenu pour une autre publication-sous la même forme ou sous une forme modifiée-on l'indiquera de façon détaillée.

Copies du manuscrit. L'auteur doit conserver un double. Les manuscrits ne seront pas retournés à moins que leurs auteurs n'en fassent expressément la demande. Les épreuves seront envoyées aux auteurs dans des circonstances exceptionnelles seulement.

Les auteurs s'adresseront à:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Charles Street Sta., P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA

Nota para posibles autores

Los editores del Food and Nutrition Bulletin agradecen el envío de contribuciones pertinentes al tema de la revista (vea la política editorial de esta revista en el interior de la tapa anterior). La presentación de un articulo no es garantía de su publicación. la cual dependerá del criterio de los editores en lo que respecta a su pertinencia y calidad. Se ruega a los que deseen colaborar que consulten los números recientes de Food and Nutrition Bulletin para cerciorarse de su contenido y estilo.

Idioma. Las contribuciones podrán remitirse en español, francés o inglés. En caso de utilizar español o francés, el autor deberá incluir. de ser posible, un resumen en inglés.

Formato. Los manuscritos deberán presentarse mecanografiadas, a doble espacio, con márgenes amplios. Solamente se presentarán originales mecanografiados o una fotocopia de los mismos de calidad equivalente. No se admitirán fotocopias en papel fino o satinado.

Si ha preparado cl manuscrito con máquina de tratamiento de textos, agradeceremos nos envíe junto al manuscrito una copia del disco floppy bien en 31/2 pulgadas, bien en 51/4 pulgadas, indicando el formato del disco y el programa de tratamiento de textos que ha utilizado.

Longitud. Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras.

Resúmenes. Se adjuntará al manuscrito un resumen que no exceda de 150 palabras. El resumen indicará cl objetivo del estudio o investigación, métodos básicos (individuos, animales seleccionados en experimentos y métodos de observación y análisis). descubrimientos principales (si fuera posible aportando datos específicos y su significado estadístico), y las conclusiones principales. Se enfatizarán los aspectos nuevos e importantes del estudio u observaciones. En el resumen no se citarán referencias ni se usarán abreviaturas ni siglas.

Cuadros y figuras. Todos los cuadros y figuras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros se mecanografiarán a doble espacio. Se presentarán solamente figuras originales. esquemas originales en tinta china o fotografías en papel brillo. Los nombres de las figuras estarán mecanografiados o impresos o rotulados profesionalmente, y no manuscritos.

Fotografías. El material fotográfico se presentará preferentemente en blanco y negro. en negativos o en impresión sobre papel brillante. No se devolverá este material fotográfico a no ser que así lo solicite el remitente.

Unidades de medida. Se utilizará preferentemente el sistema métrico decimal. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.

Referencias. Al final del articulo deberán consignarse las referencias, también en doble espacio. En las referencias no se consignarán documentos que no se hayan publicado. ni aquellos que hayan solicitado su publicación pero que no se han aceptado todavía.

Las referencias se numerarán consecutivamente en el orden en que aparecen en el texto. Las referencias en el texto, en los cuadros y en los epígrafes de figuras se identificarán con números arábigos encerrados entre paréntesis rectangulares. Las referencias que se citan solamente en cuadros o epígrafes de figuras se numerarán de acuerdo con la primera mención que se haga en el texto del cuadro o figura pertinente. Debe asegurarse que se dan todas las referencias.

Las citas hechas a referencias deben adjustarse al formato indicado a continuación.

Referencia a publicación periódica

- artículo modelo de publicación periódica (consignar todos los autores):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D. Ottenberger A. Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis critico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

-autor corporativos.
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Stand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.

Referencia a labro u otra rnonografía

-autor(es) personal(es):
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental. clinical and community studies. Nueva York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

-autor corporativo:
4. Ameritan Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3ra. edición. Littleton, Mass.. EE.UU.: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

-editor, recopilador, presidente de consejo como autor:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E, editores. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.

-capítulo de libro:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural changa. En: Desai AR, editor. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y titulación más alta. nombre del departamento e instituciones a las que se atribuirá el trabajo, el nombre y la dirección del autor responsable de la correspondencia del manuscrito, y fuentes de sustentación del trabajo. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada. se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.

Copias de la contribución. El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia del material que envíe. No se devolverán los manuscritos a no ser que se pida su devolución. Las correcciones de prueba se enviarán a los autores solamente en casos excepcionales.

Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Charles Street Sta., P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA

Title of interest

Strengthening the Family: Implications for International Development
By Marian F. Zeitlin et al.

This book explores the characteristics of families that strengthen the family unit and promote the development of its individual members. Following upon an earlier research project on the development of children in poverty (published as a United Nations University Press book in 1990 under the title Positive Deviance in Child Nutrition), the present study examines how family social health improves the well-being of children and how family functioning interacts with national and international development. The authors argue that the smallest unit of analysis for sustainable development is neither the household nor the individual, but rather the family; and they stress that the success of development policies and programmes closely depends on a recognition of this. To test their hypotheses concerning associations between family health, child development, and general social development, the authors study two very different family types - the Javanese of Indonesia and the Yoruba of Nigeria. The book also considers the effects of modernization on the family; the usefulness of mathematical models in quantifying the effects of family change on economic development and human welfare; psychological studies of the family; and development assistance programmes. In the concluding section the authors present a unified cross-disciplinary paradigm of the socially well family, and also suggest policy and programme priorities.

Commenting on this study, one reviewer has written: "The great strength of this work is its sweep, bringing in new ideas from such an array of theoretical and applied fields. (The work) will contribute to a sea change in how people in a variety of fields of endeavor are looking at families."

ISBN 92-808-0890-7
US$35; airmail US$40
Developing country price: US$17.50

United Nations
University Press

53-70, Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku Tokyo 150,
Japan Tel (03) 3499-2811, Fax (03) 3406-345.

Contents - Previous