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Karuna D. Kulkarni, D. N. Kulkarni, and U. M. Ingle
The high-volume/high-viscosity character of many commercially available weaning foods is a major constraint in providing children with enough calorie density. An attempt was made to formulate low-cost, nutritive but bulk-reduced weaning foods using sorghum malt, green gram malt, and sesame flour. The formulations thus prepared were evaluated for functional properties such as particle size, water absorption, dispersibility, hot-paste and cold-paste viscosities, colour, and nutritive value with respect to calories, vitamin C, minerals, and available lysine. The ingredients showed variation in particle size: green gram malt was finer than sorghum malt, and sesame flour was much coarser. The laboratory formulations had finer particle size than a commercial sample. Green gram malt had a higher water-absorption capacity and a lower percentage of dispersibility in water than sorghum malt. The experimental formulations had lower water-absorption capacities and higher percentages of dispersibility than the commercial sample. The viscosities of 10% and 15% gruel concentrations of the experimental formulations were much lower than those of the commercial sample. CSH-I sorghum malt was darker than the other ingredients. Sensory evaluation found the experimental preparations to have good acceptability. A weaning food containing 60% sorghum malt, 30% green gram malt, and 10% sesame flour was found to have satisfactory functional characteristics and nutritive value and is recommended.
The combination of a cereal with an appropriate proportion of an oilseed meal or one or more legumes to make a weaning food of acceptable organoleptic and nutritional properties has ample precedent. Every developing country should ensure the availability of weaning food of this type, as it can be much less expensive than either milk or commercial products, which are usually beyond the purchasing power of the poor. Incaparina is the prototype mixture of this type (see Food and Nutrition Bulletin 1980;2(2):1-2, 3-8). Recently there has been great interest in the application of malting to improve the acceptability and nutritional value of such mixtures, as exemplified by the preceding article and others referred to in it.
It is hoped that the following article, which provides a detailed description of the prepation and evaluation of a food made up of 60% sorghum malt, 30% green gram (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) malt, and 10% sesame flour, will focus renewed attention on the desirability of locally based weaning foods in every developing country.
Even though commercial weaning foods are available, most of them are priced beyond the reach of the majority of the population in less-developed countries. These foods are mostly manufactured using high technology and are sold in sophisticated packaging.
There is a need for low-cost weaning foods which can be prepared easily in home and community kitchens from locally available raw material such as sorghum, using simple technology that is within the reach of the general public in developing countries and does not require sophisticated equipment, and which can be served quickly and conveniently. Such foods can be more nutritious than commercial brands.
A significant problem with both commercial weaning foods and gruels made from local materials is their dietary bulk, or high-volume/high-viscosity character: When they are made with a high enough solid concentration to provide adequate calorie density, they tend to be thick and viscous, making them difficult for a young child to eat-especially if the child is sick and prefers a liquid gruel. Adding water to lower the concentration of solid matter makes the gruel thinner and easier to eat but at the same time reduces the calories per unit volume, so that it becomes difficult for the child to consume enough volume to get the energy it needs, and feeding becomes time-consuming. It has been shown that germination or malting reduces dietary bulk and improves the digestibility of grains . Several studies on reducing the viscosity of rice gruel , wheat gruels [3, 4], and germinated barley-based gruel [5, 6], and the acceptance of bulk-reduced weaning food  have indicated the usefulness of such foods.
We undertook to prepare weaning foods with sorghum, green gram, and sesame. The sorghum and green gram were malted, and the sesame seed was used after decortication. The investigation had two major objectives: to test the functional characteristics of the experimental formulations in comparison with commercial products, and to evaluate their nutritive value.
Materials and methods
Sorghum grain samples, hybrid CSH-1 and pure-bred M35-1, were obtained from the All India Coordinated Research Project on Sorghum, in Parbhani. Green gram and sesame were obtained from the local market in bulk and were cleaned, dried, and stored safely in containers.
A popular commercial brand of weaning food was used for comparison with the experimental formulations.
Malting and experimental formulations
Sorghum malt was prepared according to the procedure standardized in our laboratory . The sorghum grain was cleaned, weighed, washed, and steeped in water (1:3 sorghum: water) for 18 hours so as to attain a 45% moisture level. The water was changed every two hours and sodium benzoate was added to prevent fungal growth during germination. The steeped grain was drained, loaded onto perforated trays lined with muslin cloth, and covered with moist muslin. The trays were placed in a seed germinator at 20°C and 95% relative humidity for 72 hours. The germinated grain was dried at 55°C in an air-flow drier for 24 hours to reduce its moisture content from 42% to 8%. The withered rootless were gently brushed off, and the malt was ground in a hammer mill. It was preserved in air-tight glass jars kept at a low temperature.
FIG. 1. Preparation of sorghum malt-based weaning foods
Green gram malt was prepared by the procedure standardized by Malleshi and Desikachar .
The steps used in the preparation of the ingredients are shown in figure 1. The various formulations of experimental weaning foods are indicated in table 1.
Testing and evaluation
Particle-size distribution was evaluated by passing the ingredients and formulations through an automatic standard sieve shaker. The percentage fraction of the sample retained on each sieve was measured by weighing.
Water-absorption capacity, measured as grams of water absorbed by 100 g of solid matter, was determined according to the procedure of Sosulski .
Dispersibility was measured by placing 10 g of the sample in a 100-ml stoppered measuring cylinder, adding distilled water to reach a volume of 100 ml, stirring vigorously, and allowing it to settle for three hours. The volume of settled particles was subtracted from 100 and the difference reported as percentage dispersibility.
TABLE 1. Proportions of ingredients in the experimental weaning food formulations
|Sorghum variety and formulation code||Ingredients (%)|
|Sorghum malt||Green gram malt||Sesame flour|
The amylolytic activity of the malts was determined by the procedure described by the AOAC  and is reported as °L. Proteolytic activity was determined using the method described by Ayre and Anderson  and is expressed as mg N/100 g malt.
The malts and the weaning food formulations were mixed uniformly in water at concentrations of 10% and 15% and cooked slowly, first at 50°C for 10 minutes and then at 85°C for 20 minutes. The gruels thus prepared were measured for hot-paste viscosity using a Brookfield LVT model synchroelectric viscometer at 12 rpm rotational speed; the values are reported as centipoise (cp). After cooling to ambient temperature (30±2°C), the samples were measured for cold-paste viscosity in the same way.
Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and crude fibre were determined by AOAC methods. Carbohydrate content was estimated by the difference. Ascorbic acid was estimated using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol dye. Iron and calcium were determined by the ISI procedure. Available lysine was estimated by a corrected straight acid procedure. The energy values of the weaning food formulations were determined by computation and expressed in calories.
The four best formulations in terms of nutritive value and sensory quality were further evaluated for the biological value of their protein.
The colour of the ingredients and weaning food formulations was evaluated by matching the samples with a Munsell colour chart. The values are reported in Munsell notations for hue, value, and chrome.
The weaning food formulations were reconstituted to 15% gruel concentration with 7% sugar for taste, and were cooked with slow gelatinization. Sensory evaluation was carried out by semi-trained judges using a 10-point hedonic scale rating for colour, flavour, taste, viscosity, and overall acceptability. The range method of statistical analysis was applied for the test of the significance to find the preferences.
Results and discussion
Particle size is an important feature of any granular mix that requires reconstitution with water. The smaller the particle size, the more surface area is available for water absorption. A fine powder tends to form more lumps and takes more time and energy to make a good dispersion. Very large particles make the dispersion more gritty. An optimum distribution of particle size is essential in order to get the best acceptability.
Table 2 indicates the particle-size distribution of the weaning food ingredients and formulations. About half of the sorghum malt particles were larger than 250µ and the rest were smaller. The green gram malt particles were finer than the sorghum malt, and the sesame flour particles were all larger than 250µ. The commercial weaning food sample had larger particles than the experimental formulations (about 78% of the particles were larger than 250µ) and produced fewer lumps when mixed in water.
Water-absorption capacity and dispersibility
Water-absorption capacity gives an indication of the amount of water available for gelatinization. Lower absorption capacity is desirable for making thinner gruels. The sorghum malts and sesame flour had lower absorption capacities than the green gram malt (table 3).
The experimental formulations had absorption capacities in the range of 128%-140%, while that of the commercial weaning food was significantly higher (176%). Formulations B and F-containing 70% sorghum malt, 20% green gram malt, and 10% sesame flour-had the lowest absorption capacities.
The dispersibility of a mix in water indicates its re constitutability. The higher the dispersibility, the better. The percentage dispersibility of the weaning food ingredients ranged from 63 to 79. The CSH-1 sorghum malt was superior to the other ingredients. The variation among the experimental formulations was negligible, ranging between 71 and 75. The commercial weaning food had a very poor dispersibility of only 40%.
TABLE 2. Particle sizes of the weaning food ingredients and formulations (percentages material retained on the screen)
|Sieve size (m )|
TABLE 3 Water-absorption capacity and dispersibility of the weaning food ingredients and formulations
|Water absorptionb||Dispersibility (%)|
a. Grams of water absorbed per 100 g of solid matter.
Enzyme activity and viscosity
As noted earlier, viscosity is an important constraining factor in weaning foods. The high viscosity of a gruel prepared from cereal-grain and legume flours is due to the presence of starch and proteins. Starch, in particular, absorbs water on cooking, forming a gelatinous mass.
The use of malted flour reduces this dietary bulk because germination, or malting, produces and activates amylolytic and proteolytic enzymes, which rapidly break down starch and protein respectively into more soluble products. As the starch is broken down by the amylolytic enzymes, its water-holding capacity is reduced, releasing the water trapped in the gel structure and producing a more liquid gruel.
The amylolytic and proteolytic activities of the malts which are the principal ingredients of the experimental weaning food formulations are reported in table 4. Of the two sorghum cultivars tested, the malt made from CSH-1 had the higher amylolytic activity. Proteolytic activity was greatest in the green gram malt.
As sorghum is a major source of starch in the formulations and green gram a major source of protein, the fact that the former has higher amylolytic and the latter higher proteolytic activity is very desirable.
TABLE 4. Amylolytic and proteolytic activities of the malts
(mg N/100 g)
|Green gram malt||72||213|
These enzymes act on the substrate most actively during the initial stage of cooking.
The hot-paste and cold-paste viscosities of the cooked gruels prepared from 10% and 15% slurries of the malts alone and of the weaning food formulations are reported in table 5. The green gram malt gruels had higher viscosities than the sorghum malt, as was expected since sorghum malt has higher amylolytic activity.
Slight variations were observed among the experimental formulations due to differences in the proportions of each ingredient. The 15% gruels in all cases had three to four times higher viscosities. The cold-paste viscosities were also much higher, because the starch retrogrades on cooling and takes up much more water, making it more viscous.
The commercial weaning food had significantly higher viscosities than the experimental ones. At 10% gruel concentration they were approximately double those of the experimental formulations, and at 15% they were so high that it was difficult to make the measurements with the viscometer used.
The proximate analysis of the two sorghum cultivars and their malt samples did not vary significantly. Dehusking sesame seed causes reduction in crude fibre and ash content. The malt samples had high in vitro protein digestibility and a fair amount of available lysine (3.24-4.17 g/16 g N). Green gram malt contained 49 mg vitamin C. The sesame flour was rich in calcium.
In the analysis of the experimental formulations- in which the green gram malt was blended at 20%, 30%, and 40% and the sesame flour at 0% and 10% with the two types of sorghum malt (table 1)-there was a proportionate increase in protein, available lysine, and vitamin C with increase in the green gram malt (table 6). The samples with sesame flour had higher calcium content.
The PER values of the four best formulations in terms of nutritive value and sensory acceptability ranged from 2.78 to 2.82, compared with 3.15 for casein.
TABLE 5. Hot-paste and cold-paste viscosities (cp) of the malts and weaning food formulations at 10% and 15% slurry concentrations
|Hot paste||Cold paste|
a. Very thick.
TABLE 6. Nutrition composition of the weaning foods (moisture-free basis)
|Energy (kcal/100 g)||Ascorbic
(g/16 g N)
TABLE 7. Colour of the weaning food ingredients and formulations
|CSH-1||dull white||10YR 8/2|
|Green gram||pale yellow||5Y 8/4|
|Sesame flour||brownish yellow||10YR 6/8|
|A||dull white||10YR 7/2|
|B||dull white||10YR 7/2|
|C||dull white||10YR 7/1|
The colour of the weaning food formulations depends on the colour of the ingredients used (table 7). The colour of the CSH-1 sorghum malt was slightly inferior to that of the M35-1 because the CSH-1 grains had a slightly darker pericarp. The green gram malt was pale yellow, and the sesame flour slightly brownish yellow. As sesame flour made up only 10% of the formulations, it affected the colour less than the other ingredients. The colour of the formulations did not vary much, except that those containing CSH-1 malt were slightly darker.
The sensory evaluation gave high scores for colour, flavour, taste, and overall acceptability to the formulations containing 30% or 40% green gram malt and 10% sesame flour (C, D, G, and H). The mouth feel of the formulations with 20% green gram malt (B and F) was preferable to that of the others.
The use of malted sorghum and green gram in weaning food formulations yields a product with improved functional characteristics and high nutritive value. A formulation containing 60% sorghum malt, 30% green gram malt, and 10% sesame flour is more nutritious and has better acceptability because of reduced viscosity.
This research was supported by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
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Breastfeeding, nutrition, infection and infant growth in developed and emerging countries. Edited by Stephanie A. Atkinson, Lars A. Hanson, and Ranjit K. Chandra. ARTS Biomedical Publishers, St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada, 1990. (ISBN 0-921554-01-X) 577 pages, hardback.
This is the report of the 4th International Workshop on Human Lactation, held in November 1988. It contains many interesting and informative chapters in seven sections, most of them by well recognized authorities, plus abstracts of posters shown at the meeting. The long-term health effects of breast-feeding, the antimicrobial properties of breast milk, maternal energy requirements to support lactation, adequacy of breast milk to meet infant requirements, breastfeeding and growth, and the relationship of iron deficiency to development are all well covered, often in more than one chapter. Other sections deal with advances in research methods, methodological approaches to the assessment of long-term health outcomes in breast-fed versus bottle-fed infants, and public health and family practices that may affect breast-feeding and outcomes of national nutrition policies.
Community nutritional assessment-with special reference to less technically developed countries. Derrick B. Jelliffe and E. F. Patrice Jelliffe. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Tokyo, 1989. (ISBN 0-19-261218-2) 633 pages, hardback. US$85.
This book is authoritative and comprehensive in its coverage of conventional methods for the assessment of nutrition status. The treatment of the direct assessment of nutrition status by clinical signs, laboratory tests, and anthropometry and the description of gathering and using health statistics is clear and practical, although the book would benefit from colour illustrations. Its coverage of ecological variables is original and useful. The chapter on the interpretation of nutrition problems in different age groups covers the assessment of the nutrition status of mothers and more briefly that of other age groups. The brief discussions of detecting iron deficiency, avitaminosis-A, rickets, iodine deficiency disorders, protein-energy malnutrition, and obesity are appropriate to community studies but relatively superficial. Chapters on methods of data collection, programme planning and implementation, and stimulation of action programmes complete the volume. Regrettably, there is no mention of the application of anthropological methodologies for obtaining qualitative information on the reasons for food and nutrition-related behaviour.
Seafood safety. Edited by Farid E. Ahmed. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. (ISBN 0309-043875) 432 pages, hardback. US$49.95.
This report of a Committee on Evaluation of the Safety of Fishery Products reviews the nature and extent of public health risks associated with seafood in the United States and the scope and adequacy of current seafood safety programmes. It concludes that most risks are associated with contamination of the environment from which they come. Because more than half of the US seafood supply is imported and because environmental contamination is globally pervasive, safety control methods for imported foods are essential. The book emphasizes the need for increased understanding of the nature of seafood hazards in the food-service sectors and by the health professional and the consumer. A summary of hazards, risks, and their control is provided for the major groups of hazardous seafoods. The assessment is based on the situation in an advanced country such as the United States, but the risks described are even greater for developing countries with unsanitary environments and a lack of control measures. This is an authoritative and comprehensive summary of the consumer risks associated with seafood and how they can best be minimized.
Nutrient additions to foods: Nutritional, technological and regulatory aspects. J. Christopher Bauernfeind and Paul A. Lachance. Food and Nutrition Press, Trumbull, Conn., USA, 1991. (ISBN 0-917678-29-X) 622 pages, hardback. US$135.
This book deals with the addition of one or more nutrients to food and attempts a comprehensive compendium of the knowledge of the nutritional, technological, and regulatory aspects of adding nutrients to foods. It provides useful information on the technologies employed for the food technologist, guidance to the food manufacturer, and background education material for the student, educatory physician, public health worker, and nutritionist as well as policy makers and those concerned with legal aspects of the problem. It is a very complete summary of the current status of food supplementation.
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1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:1 19-25.
Book or other monograph reference
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3rd ed. Littleton. Mass, USA: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.
editor, compiler, chairman as author:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E. eds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.
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6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. In: Desai AR. ed. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.
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1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D. Ottenberger A. Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.
auteur d'une société:
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976:36:119-25.
Livre ou autre monographie
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3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: expérimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
auteur d'une société:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3e éd. Littleton, Mass. (E.-U.): Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.
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5. Medioni J, Boesinger E, éds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson, 1977.
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6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. Dans: Desai AR. éd. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.
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Si ha preparado cl manuscrito con máquina de tratamiento de textos, agradeceremos nos envíe junto al manuscrito una copia del disco floppy bien en 31/2 pulgadas, bien en 51/4 pulgadas, indicando el formato del disco y el programa de tratamiento de textos que ha utilizado.
Longitud. Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras.
Resúmenes. Se adjuntará al manuscrito un resumen que no exceda de 150 palabras. El resumen indicará cl objetivo del estudio o investigación, métodos básicos (individuos, animales seleccionados en experimentos y métodos de observación y análisis), descubrimientos principales (si fuera posible aportando datos específicos y su significado estadístico), y las conclusiones principales. Se enfatizarán los aspectos nuevos e importantes del estudio u observaciones. En el resumen no se citarán referencias ni se usarán abreviaturas ni siglas.
Cuadros y figuras. Todos los cuadros y figuras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros se mecanografiarán a doble espacio. Se presentarán solamente figuras originales. esquemas originales en tinta china o fotografías en papel brillo. Los nombres de las figuras estarán mecanografiados o impresos o rotulados profesionalmente, y no manuscritos.
Fotografías. El material fotográfico se presentará preferentemente en blanco y negro. en negativos o en impresión sobre papel brillante. No se devolverá este material fotográfico a no ser que así lo solicite el remitente.
Unidades de medida. Se utilizará preferentemente el sistema métrico decimal. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.
Referencias. Al final del articulo deberán consignarse las referencias, también en doble espacio. En las referencias no se consignarán documentos que no se hayan publicado. ni aquellos que hayan solicitado su publicación pero que no se han aceptado todavía.
Las referencias se numerarán consecutivamente en el orden en que aparecen en el texto. Las referencias en el texto, en los cuadros y en los epígrafes de figuras se identificarán con números arábigos encerrados entre paréntesis rectangulares. Las referencias que se citan solamente en cuadros o epígrafes de figuras se numerarán de acuerdo con la primera mención que se haga en el texto del cuadro o figura pertinente. Debe asegurarse que se dan todas las referencias.
Las citas hechas a referencias deben adjustarse al formato indicado a continuación.
Referencia a publicación periódica
artículo modelo de publicación
periódica (consignar todos los autores):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D. Ottenberger A. Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis critico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Stand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.
Referencia a labro u otra monografía
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental. clinical and community studies. Nueva York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3ra. edición. Littleton, Mass.. EE.UU.: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.
editor, recopilador, presidente de
consejo como autor:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E, editores. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.
capítulo de libro:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural changa. En: Desai AR, editor. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.
Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y titulación más alta. nombre del departamento e instituciones a las que se atribuirá el trabajo, el nombre y la dirección del autor responsable de la correspondencia del manuscrito, y fuentes de sustentación del trabajo. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada. se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.
Copias de la contribución. El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia del material que envíe. No se devolverán los manuscritos a no ser que se pida su devolución. Las correcciones de prueba se enviarán a los autores solamente en casos excepcionales.
Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a:
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Food Composition Data: A User's
Edited by William M. Rand, Carol T. Windham, Bonita W. Wyse, and Vernon R. Young
Knowledge of the composition of the foods eaten around the world is of critical importance for research and policy in public health, dietetics, and nutrition. Data on food composition, however, are extremely inadequate. This volume, examining the current problems of the field and what is needed to improve the situation, provides an essential introduction and survey of the subject for anyone who will be involved in gathering, compiling, or using food composition data. It will be a useful reference for university courses on food and nutrition.
WHTR-10/UNUP-633 ISBN 92 808-0633-5
236 pages, 16.4x23.9cm,paper
US$20 (Developing country price: US$ 10)
Identification of Food Components for
INFOODS Data Interchange
by John C. Klensin, Diane Feskanich, Victor Lin, A. Stewart Truswell, and David A. T. Southgate
Intended to help remedy the glaring incompleteness or inaccessibility in many parts of the world of data on the nutrient composition of foods, this book makes available for the first time a comprehensive standardization of nomenclature for international nutrient data exchange. It provides a straightforward set of rules for identifying food components precisely and constructing data bases suitable for transfer between computers.
WHTR-14/UNUP-734 ISBN 92-808-0734-x
112 pages, 16.4 x 23. 9 cm, paper
US$20 (Developing country price: US$ 10)
Intra-household Resource Allocation:
Issues and Methods for Development Policy and Planning
Edited by Beatrice Lorge Rogers and Nina P. Schlossman
Emphasizing the importance of understanding how resources are distributed within the household in order to design successful development programmes, this 3-part study considers various conceptual approaches to the subject, examines different methods for collecting the information needed for analysing household resource al location, and focuses on such key variables as how members allocate time, individual food consumption, and household flexibility in adapting to external economic and social changes.
WHTR- 13/UNUP-733 ISBN 92 808-0733-1
214 pages, 16.4 x 23.9 cm,paper
US$35 (Developing country price: US$ 17. 50)
Research Methods in Nutritional
Edited by Gretel H. Pelto, Pertti J. Pelto, and Ellen Messer
A comprehensive manual of anthropological methodologies applicable to field stud)" in nutrition, this volume describes strategies of field research in nutritional anthropology, determinants and cultural components of food intake, methods for collecting and analysing data on energy expenditures, and statistical methods for nutritional anthropology.
WHTR-9/UNUP-632 ISBN 92-808-0632-7
218 pages, 16.4 x 23.9 cm, paper
US$30 (Developing country price: US$ 15)
Effective Communications for Nutrition
in Primary Health Care
Edited by Jean E Andersen and Aree Valyasevi
Concentrating on the experiences of developing countries, this book advocates the effective communication of nutrition and health information as a key component of primary health care. It provides a framework for evaluating nutrition communications needs, methodological guidelines, and suggestions for programme evaluation.
WHTR-11/UNUP-634 ISBN 92-808-0634-3
220 pages, 16.4x23.9 cm, paper
US$20 (Developing country price: US$ 10)
How to Order
Publications may be ordered by writing to: United Nations University Press, The United Nations University, Toho Seimei Building, 15-1 Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. A complete catalogue is also available.
Microform Publishing: All publications can be obtained on microfiche.
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