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Control of communicable diseases in man. 15th ed. Edited by Abram S. Benenson. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1990. 532 pages, paperback. US$15 plus postage (US$2 in the United States, US$5 elsewhere).
This compact authoritative volume compresses essential information on the identification, agent, occurrence, reservoir, transmission, incubation period, communicability period. susceptibility and resistance control, and specific treatment of virtually all infectious diseases affecting humans. It is the most convenient, complete, affordable, and up-to-date source of this data.
Nutrition in the prevention of disease. Edited by J. C. Somogyi and S. Hejda. S. Karger, Farmington, Conn., USA, 1989. (ISBN 3-8055-4965-8) 188 pages, hardback. US$154.25.
This is the report of a 1988 symposium of the Group of European Nutritionists and includes 18 papers on European approaches to obesity, vitamin deficiencies' iron deficiency, and large bowel disease.
Nutritional epidemiology. Walter Willett. Oxford University Press, New York, 1990. (ISBN 0-19-504501-7) 416 pages, hardback. US$49.95.
This book is written both for active researchers engaged in studies of diet and diseases and for persons attempting to interpret published epidemiologic information relating to nutrition. It is concerned with method and principle, not current studies and conclusions. However, it will help the reader to understand the basis for the conclusions that are being reached on the relationship of various dietary components and diabetes, hypertension, chronic heart disease, and a number of kinds of cancer. It also applies to the relationship found in field studies between diet, morbidity from infectious disease, mortality, physical and mental development, and other functional consequences. It is a good introduction to nutritional epidemiology either as a textbook or a reference book. Its chapters on the epidemiological use of various methodologies for determining dietary intakes are particularly valuable. Some basic knowledge of statistics and access to a standard epidemiological text will be helpful in using this volume.
Vitamin A deficiency in Bangladesh: Prevention and control. Edited by Ian Darnton-Hill. Helen Keller International, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1989. (Available from: Country Director, Helen Keller International, PO Box 6066, Gulshan, Dhaka- 1212, Bangladesh. Fax: 880-2-813310.)
This small volume is designed to give a complete concept of vitamin-A deficiency in one of the countries in which it is a serious problem. It covers various clinical, dietary, and epidemiological aspects of vitamin A deficiency. It also explores short- (high-dose capsules), medium- (fortification), and long-term (home gardens and nutrition education) instruments for its control. This volume is highly recommended for individuals faced with the control of this deficiency in countries in which avitaminosis-A is a public health problem.
Policy reform and poverty in Malawi: A survey of a decade of experience. David E. Sahn. Jehan Arulpragasam, and Lemma Merid. Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program Monograph 7. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA, 1990. 254 pages.
This is a detailed analysis of the economy of one of the poorer countries of Africa, Malawi, and the impact of macroeconomic and sectorial policy reforms, including imposed structural adjustment policies on equity and welfare. The results are somewhat inconclusive and discouraging but give a true picture of the crisis and frustration facing the population of one of the African countries that has been more resolute in facing daunting economic and agricultural problems.
Fiscal and exchange rate reforms in Africa: Considering the impact upon the poor. David E. Sahn. Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program Monograph 4. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA, 1990. 115 pages.
This monograph examines trends in the level and pattern of government expenditures in sub-Saharan Africa as well as data on exchange rates, food production, food prices, and real wages. The impact of adjustment polices imposed by the World Bank was variable among these countries, with no overall pattern. Despite the increase in food production through the 1970s and 1980s it was not enough to keep up with the rapid population growth. It concludes that living standards and welfare must be raised primarily through growth-oriented policies that are broad-based to accommodate the poor.
Downturn and economic recovery in Ghana: Impacts on the poor. Harold Alderman. Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program Monograph 10. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA, 1991. (ISBN 1-564010104) 221 pages, paperback. US$12.
Between 1975 and 1983 GNP in Ghana declined 1% per year, while rapid population growth continued, food became scarce and expensive, and hunger and malnutrition increased. However, a series of deliberate changes in government policy reversed this trend and growth averaged 5.4% per year between 1983 and 1988. By 1984 food supplies had increased, prices had dropped, and conditions in the country were obviously improving. These policies are now being recommended to other African countries as part of the economic adjustment process. This small monograph describes the policy decisions and actions responsible and their consequences. It also warns that a substantial portion of the population has been left out of these improvements. It concludes that the restoration of economic and social indications to pre-downturn levels is a noteworthy achievement, but that lasting success will now require economic growth, poverty alleviation. and improved social equity.
Structural adjustment and rural smallholder welfare: A comparative analysis from sub-Saharan Africa. David E. Sahn and Alexander Sarris. Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program Working Paper 3. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA, 1991. 39 pages, paperback.
Analysing data on the impact of stabilization and structural adjustment programmes in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Malawi, Madagascar, and Tanzania, the authors conclude that the impact on the direction and level of changes in the real incomes of the poor depend on a large number of factors that are unpredictable without a careful analysis of a wide range of data. Changes in non-agricultural incomes can either offset or worsen changes in agricultural earnings and relative prices do not move in a predictable fashion.
Commercialization of agriculture under population pressure: Effects on production, consumption and nutrition in Rwanda. Joachim von Braun, Hartwig de Haen, and Juergen Balnken. Research Report 85. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C., 1991. 123 pages, paperback.
In Rwanda, as in many other African countries, rapid population growth contributes significantly to rural poverty. From 40% to 60% of all rural households surveyed were found to consume less than 80% of estimated requirements. Countries under such pressure must build their economic sustainability less and less upon agriculture alone. However, rural infrastructure, tenure policies, and expanded opportunities for women are essential. Despite the increase in commercialization of agriculture, subsistence-oriented agriculture predominates and is positively associated with the nutritional status of children. This analysis of the effects of the commercialization of agriculture and population pressure is of special interest because it has applications to so much of Africa.
Dairy development in sub-Saharan Africa: A study of issues and options. Michael J. Walshe, John Grindle, Arend Nell, and Marc Bachmann. World Bank Technical Paper no. 135. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1991. (ISBN 0-8213-1781-4) 94 pages, paperback.
This brief monograph describes the evolution of dairying in Africa and deals with the growing market's opportunities for development. More than half of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, with about three quarters of the human population of the region, have substantial potential for dairy development. This is true even though the potential in much of central and western Africa is limited by the prevalence of tsetse and trypanosomiasis. The study deals with the physical, technical, economic, social, and institutional constraints and recommends appropriate strategies for tackling them.
Feeding tomorrow's world. Albert Sasson. Unesco, Paris, 1990. (ISBN 92-3-102083) 805 pages, paperback. FF225/US$53/C$56.50/£34.
This volume, intended for teachers, researchers, academics, technicians, and decision makers, is a comprehensive and surprisingly detailed elementary text covering both human nutrition and agricultural production and trade.
The first section, which deals with nutritional needs, protein deficiency and malnutrition, nutrition and infections, children's diet, changes in diet and attitudes toward food, and diet and health, is well adapted to the needs of developing countries. The second section is concerned with food from the perspective of production and trade in agricultural foodstuffs. It deals with changes in food production, factors affecting food-production patterns, and the effects of climatic variation on production, and provides a detailed review of the food situation in each region of the world. Characteristics of the principal crops of developing countries and international trade in agricultural commodities are also described. The third section deals with both the achievements of and the potential for rural development: the effects of the green revolution on major food crops, agroforestry. and animal husbandry; the conservation of genetic resources; international assistance and cooperation; and future prospects. An excellent bibliography is provided for each section.
The text is too extensive and detailed for most secondary-school students and does not provide enough nutrition detail for the advanced training of nutrition scientists. However, it is admirably adapted for a high-school honours course or for a nonprofessional university course that approaches nutrition and food from a global perspective.
Sharing innovation: Global perspective on food, agriculture, and rural development. Edited by Neil G. Kotler. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, 1990. (ISBN 0-87474-874-7 [Smithsonian], ISBN 971-104-221-5 [IRRI]). 265 pages, paperback.
This is the report of the 1989 World Food Prize Symposium, at which the laureate was Verghese Kurien, chairman of the National Dairy Development Board in Anand, India. The volume examines agricultural strategies and food policies in Asia, Africa' and Latin America; the central role of knowledge and technology transfer among and within nations; and successful innovations and national solutions that hold promise. The perspectives and experience from Nigeria, China, India, Indonesia, Tanzania, and Chile will be useful to those confronting similar problems. Chapters on community-based development and issues of food, population, and the environment; summaries of the discussions following the morning and afternoon sessions; and the proceedings of a discussion of research directions for sharing innovation complete the volume.
Appropriate uses of anthropometric indices in children: A report based on an ACC/SCN workshop. Edited by G. Beaton, A. Kelly, J. Kevany, R. Martorell, and J. Mason. ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper no. 7. ACC/ SCN, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990.
Anthropometry is useful because it is a practical way of describing the nutrition problem in children and offers strong and feasible predictors at individual and population levels of subsequent ill health, functional impairment, and/or mortality. Under some circumstances it can also serve as an appropriate indicator of the success or failure of interventions in the many economic and environmental factors that underlie nutrition deprivation. This is often the best general proxy for constraints on the welfare of the poor, including not only dietary inadequacy but also the burden of infectious disease and other environmental factors that adversely affect health.
For these reasons the use and interpretation of anthropometry in various operational settings has become a priority issue in developing countries. There has also been considerable uncertainty in the choice of anthropometric indicators, appropriate cut-off points and their meaning in different circumstances. This report, based on a workshop convened by the SCN in June 1989, provides scientific justification for the collection and use of anthropometric measures. It also provides a basis for the selection of particular indices and their subsequent interpretation.
This publication is essential for all developing-country nutrition and health workers concerned with the design and interpretation of anthropometry in developing-country populations. By providing for standardized procedures and quality controls it will enhance the usefulness of anthropometric measures in health programmes and improve the comparability of such information for different populations. Fortunately, individuals whose work requires it can obtain copies without charge from the SCN secretariat: Dr. John Mason, Technical Secretary, ACC/SCN, c/o WHO, 20, Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Genetic variation and nutrition. Edited by Artemis P. Simopoulos and Barton Childs. S. Karger, Farmington, Conn., USA, 1990. (ISBN 3-8055-5126-6) 300 pages, hardcover. US$194.50.
This volume is based on the proceedings of the First International Conference on Genetic Variation and Nutrition, held in June 1989 in Washington, D.C. Genetic variation is a fundamental consideration in assessing human nutritional needs and applying knowledge of nutritional factors in chronic disease. Concepts and methods evolved from molecular biology are beginning to be applied in studying the role of essential nutrients in gene expression. There is a strong interaction between genetic and cultural inheritance. The discussion of the genetic aspects of obesity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, alcoholism, ageing, and adverse reactions is of particular interest, as is the chapter on nutritional requirements and genetic variation. In the development of public policy, knowledge of genotype frequency is particularly important for estimating risk. This volume brings together difficult-to-find and new information on an important topic.
Malnutrition and achievement. Wan Abdul Manan bin Wan Muda. Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, 1991. (ISBN 98399704-1-0) 85 pages. US$5/M$10.
This 85-page monograph is based on nutrition information collected in 1985 in 10 rural primary schools of northern Peninsular Malaysia using anthropometry and haematocrit and, concurrently, the results of the mid-year examination and an integrated final examination. The prevalence of malnutrition among the sample population was 25% to 30%. All nutritional parameters showed significant correlations with examination scores. This well-conceived and -described study has important implications for both nutrition and education policy. It should be replicated in other developing countries, most of which have more serious nutrition problems than Malaysia.
Health status and well-being of the elderly: National health and nutrition examination survey. 1. Epidemiologic follow-up study. Edited by Joan C. Cornoni-Huntley, Robert R. Huntley, and Jacob J. Feldman. Oxford University Press, New York, 1990. (ISBN 0-19-504962-4) 296 pages. hardback. US$49.95.
This volume presents the association of dietary patterns, physical functioning, and personality characteristics with the occurrence of acute and chronic illness over a period of 10 years in a national cohort of 5,700 individuals 55-74 years old in 1971-1975. The sample comes from the national survey of the National Center for Health Statistics, known as the National Health and Nutrition Survey-l (NHanes I). This study confirms most of the risk factors and determinants of physical disability identified in less comprehensive studies in the US population.
An inventory of selected food and nutrition rapid appraisal methods. Lisa Haedrich, Marilyn S. Prehm, and Lucy Garman. international Food and Nutrition Program Occasional Paper Series. Department of Human Nutrition and Foods, College of Human Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., USA, 199(). 34 pages, paperback. US$3.
This well-annotated inventory of 112 articles deals mainly with quantitative field methods for determining dietary intake, nutritional status, or economic level (rather than with anthropological methods for the rapid quantitative appraisal of nutrition- and health-related behaviours, about which so much has been published in the Food and Nutrition Bulletin).
A resource guide to nutrition and forestry related publications. Ingolf Gruen and Marilyn S. Prehm. International Food and Nutrition Program Occasional Paper Series. Department of Human Nutrition and Foods, College of Human Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., USA, in collaboration with the Office of International Development, 1989. 16 pages, paperback. US$2.
This guide lists, with some annotations, the titles both of early studies describing the actual and potential food supplied by forests and of more recent studies of the interrelationships of forestry and nutrition by investigators concerned with links to household food supply, women's time, and economic considerations.
Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Series. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1990. 182 pages, paperback.
This small monograph reviews the value of roots, tubers, plantains, and bananas in human nutrition and their importance in human diets. Its purpose is to promote the production and utilization of these foods as components of a well-balanced diet. particularly since they can help to alleviate seasonal food shortages. This extensive overview describes their history, polarization, reproduction, nutritional value, and potential toxicity. It is a useful book for nutritionists, planners, and educators in tropical developing countries.
"In the United States, CD-ROMs provide an interesting supplement to what's already on paper. But in my country, either we'll acquire information on CD-ROMs or we just won't get it at all." This opinion, voiced by a Ugandan professor of paediatrics, is shared by a growing number of people and organizations working in the Third World.
"CD-ROM has saved developing countries in terms of information transfer," asserts Anne Compton, associate director of the Population Information Program at the Johns Hopkins University. "It is absolutely the appropriate technology for regions and people that have been difficult to reach."
There are several factors influencing the use of CD-ROMs in developing countries. Cost, hardware availability, climatic conditions, and the demand for specific types of information all have a bearing on what inroads this delivery medium makes.
Why CD-ROM may succeed where other media have failed
Researchers in developing countries suffer from inadequate access to current writings, whether on paper or online. Expensive, unreliable telecommunications systems limit the viability of online databases. Paper journals also have a limited distribution owing to exorbitant postal costs and only sporadically reliable postal systems. Even if a library does succeed in acquiring a journals collection, paper is hard to maintain in the Third World. Humid tropical weather rots even specially treated paper. Mice and other rodents infest most storage areas and literally eat the collections. Overeager researchers with no access to copying equipment cut articles out of single-copy journals before returning them to the shelves. International libraries, lacking the person power needed to catalogue, index, and bind serials, simply never subscribe.
This list of mundane but very real obstacles is rendered almost irrelevant by CD-ROM technology. CD-ROMs are durable, portable, and easy to ship. People can use them with minimal training and without the need for trained librarians, computer experts, or other information intermediaries.
The hardware requirements are also minimal; a typical CD-ROM reader costs around US$500 and will run with most IBM AT or clone computers with at least 520 K of available RAM space. An accompanying printer with expanded memory enables users to print articles quickly after retrieving them. While not every library will have this add-on, Compton notes, "Microcomputers are already out there, and not just in large libraries and research institutions."
Indeed, when the Population Information Program conducted training at sites that had received its free POP-Line CD-ROM, they found CD-ROM players in places ranging from large research institutions in Delhi to small family-planning clinics in Thailand. Dr. Lee Burchinal, executive director of the Sudan American Foundation for Education, Inc., confirms that there are at least a dozen sites with CD-ROM players in countries throughout Africa, including Kenya, Uganda, and Sierra Leone. A conference and workshop on CD-ROMs that his organization is jointly sponsoring, entitled "Improving Access to Information in Developing Countries," is drawing interest and attendees from such far-flung areas as the Middle East, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
Information vital to developing countries
Family planning is just one of the many topics of particular interest to researchers in developing countries. "Food, Agriculture, and Science" is the first in a series of CD-ROMs which will eventually constitute a full library on agricultural research. Developed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), this disc includes one document from each of 20 international agricultural centres. Each document is in its original language, and the disc is accompanied by floppy disks containing trilingual aids in English, French, and Spanish.
Comprising a bibliographic database, 3,500 keyed and searchable pages and 850 illustrations, the CGIAR disc includes a farmer's primer on rice growing, information on agriculture-aquaculture farming systems, and trends and projections concerning food in the Third World. Eleanor Frierson of the CGIAR's Executive Secretariat (located at the World Bank) explains that "Until now, each of these agricultural research centres has had no systematic way of sharing its findings except through its own publications. A major advantage of CD-ROM technology is that it fosters the transmission of information between developing countries, not just from industrialized to Third World countries. "
The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), based in the Netherlands, recognized this potential. They funded a pilot project in which they placed CD-ROM players, a portfolio of discs, and trainers in 11 sites in African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries.
The Pan American Health Organization has also embarked on a distribution programme. They have given CD-ROM players to 120 medical libraries in Latin America and the Caribbean, hoping to enhance both the import and export of information. Articles on public health in Central and South America- material that would not usually move beyond regional borders-may find broad distribution channels for the first time.
"Maternal and child health care is of prime importance in developing countries," notes Dr. James Bascom of CMC ReSearch. With that in mind, he anticipates significant demand for Pediatrics on Disc and Pediatric Infectious Disease, two titles from his company's expanding discography. CMC ReSearch also plans to publish most of the Brandon Hill list of journal titles on CD-ROM, because, he stresses, "there's a great need in developing countries for clinically useful, core medical literature."
A CD-ROM distribution programme is also under way at the National Academy of Science, and Dr. Burchinal sees a great need for discs addressing such disciplines as building, engineering, pest control, and water utilization.
European conference on food and nutrition policy
The second European Conference on Food and Nutrition Policy will be held at the Netherlands Congress Centre in The Hague, Netherlands, 21-24 April 1992. The conference is organized by the Ministry of Welfare, Public Health, and Cultural Affairs of the Netherlands in cooperation with the WHO European Regional Office in Copenhagen, Denmark, and TNO Nutrition and Food Research in Zeist, Netherlands.
The various areas of food and nutrition policy will be illustrated, and the various types of policy-implementation measures will be discussed. Policy organization will be illustrated on a national-experience level. Speakers from different sectors will be invited to demonstrate how the various sectors can contribute to better health through access to better food.
The conference is open to people active in the field of food and nutrition policy-e.g., decision makers, industry (marketing and development), government (ministries of health and agriculture), consumers (representatives of national consumer bodies), trade (leaders of retail companies, catering sector), and health educators.
For information contact: Flora de Vrijer, Food and Nutrition Policy Secretariat, c/o TNO Nutrition and Food Research, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands; telephone +31 3404 44218, fax +31 3404 57224, telex 40022 civo nl.
International conference on nutrition
The International Conference on Nutrition, organized by FAO and WHO, will be held in Rome in December 1992. The meeting, including its preparation and follow-up, will highlight the important role of nutrition in the last decade of this century. (FAO organized the World Food Conference, which directed attention to the role of food, in 1974.)
FAD/WHO will invite all countries of the world to send official country delegations. Other international agencies such as UNICEF, the World Bank, Unesco, and IFAD will be actively involved. In addition, NGOs such as the IUNS and nutrition specialists in their own capacity will be invited for active participation.
For further information, please write to: Prof. J. G. A. J. Hautvast, Secretary General, International Union of Nutritional Sciences, c/o Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, PO Box 8219, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands; telephone 31-8370-82589, fax 31-8370-83342, telex 45015.
American European Dietetic Association
The fifteenth annual conference of the American European Dietetic Association (AEDA), on the theme "Nutrition and Dietetics: Across the Borders-A Mountain of Challenges," will be held 5-7 March 1992 at the Hotel Eden au Lac, Montreux, Switzerland. AEDA is an international affiliate of the American Dietetic Association. The official language of the conference will be English. For more information, please contact: Wily Shaw-Belblidia, Beckehus 26, CH-5254 Boezen, Switzerland; telephone 41-6466- 1957.
International congress of dietetics
The eleventh International Congress of Dietetics will take place in Jerusalem, Israel, 22-27 May 1992. The theme of the congress will be "Nutrition and Dietetics-The Paradox of Plenty." For further information, contact: Secretariat, International Congress of Dietetics, PO Box 50006, Tel-Aviv 61500, Israel; telephone (03) 654571, fax 972 3 655674, telex 341171 KENS IL.
Trace elements in health and disease
An international conference on Trace Elements in Health and Disease-which will be both the third conference of the International Society for Trace Elements Research in Humans (ISTERH) and the fourth conference of the Nordic Trace Element Society (NTES)-will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, 25-29 May 1992. The conference will consist of plenary lectures as well as free communications and posters in areas involving the clinical, toxicological, and nutritional significance of trace elements. For further information, contact: ISTERH/NTES 1992, Scientific Secretariat, Dr. Lars-Olof Plantin, Clinical Research Centre, Huddinge Hospital, S 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden; telephone +46-8 746 55 68; fax +46-8 746 74 83.
International famine workshop
The International Geographical Union Study Group on Famine Research and Food Production Systems will hold its third International Famine Workshop, on the theme "Dynamics of Social Groups Most Vulnerable to Famine," 4-7 August 1992 at the School of Nutrition, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA. For information, contact: Dr. Brian Murton, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 996822, USA; telephone (808) 956-8465, fax (808) 956-3512.
Food and cancer prevention
Food and Cancer Prevention 92, an international conference on the chemical and biological aspects of dietary anticarcinogens and antimutagens, will be held in Norwich, United Kingdom, 13-16 September 1992. For further information, contact: Food and Cancer Prevention 92, AFRC Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, UK NR4 7UA; telephone (0603) 56122; telex 97545; fax (0603) 507723.
A European postgraduate course on Production and Use of Food Composition Data in Nutrition will be held 5-24 October 1992 at the Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. The course is intended for those involved in nutritional database programmes as analysts and/or compilers and will be of value to those teaching nutrition and nutritional aspects of food chemistry. The language will be English.
The major elements of the course, which will comprise lectures, seminars, and group work, will be: introduction to the uses of nutritional databases, introduction and organization of a food composition database programme, selection of foods, selection of nutrients and other components, sampling, methods of analysis, assuring the quality of analytical data, format and modes of expression. compilation of the data, and guidelines to the use of food composition data.
For further information, contact: Ms. L. Duym, FLAIR Eurofoods-Enfant Secretariat, Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands; telephone +31-8370-83054, fax +318370-83342.
SCN News, published twice a year by the ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition (SCN), contains material of interest to everyone concerned with any aspect of nutrition problems, programmes, and policies that comes to the attention of the SCN secretariat. The second issue for 1990 had 66 pages. Everyone receiving the Food and Nutrition Bulletin should also be receiving SCN News without charge; if you are not, you can notify: Dr. John Mason, Technical Secretary, ACC/SCN, c/o World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
In "Current World Supplies of and Requirements for Essential Amino Acids" by Hoshiai Kazuo, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 1 (March 1991), the end of the first sentence under the heading "EAA supplies and requirements" on page 30 and the reference should be changed; the sentence should read:
The EAA supplies by country were computed using amino acid data [11-14] for food commodities shown in FAO food balance sheets and related information .
In addition, in table 1, page 30, the value for 1984-1986 in column a should be 0.02, not 0.25. And in table 5, page 33, the figure for the world population should be 4,805.8 million, not 4,085d3 million.
In "Dietary Vitamin-A Deficiency: Effects on Growth, Infection, and Mortality" by Keith P. West, Jr., Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 2 (June 1991), the accidental omission of part of a sentence seriously distorted a critical statement. The final sentence on page 122 (continuing onto page 123) should read:
To date, one small field trial has found a reduction in the incidence of respiratory infection and diarrhoea , whereas a large community-based trial did not find a difference in morbidity  in the presence of marked reductions in mortality .
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