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Book reviews and notices

Infant feeding: The physiological basis. Edited by J. Akre. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1990. English with summaries in French (Spanish edition in preparation). (ISBN 92-4-068670-3; order no. 1036701) 108 pages. SwF 20/US$16, developing countries SwF 14.

This review considers what knowledge about infant physiology can contribute to the understanding of nutritional needs and provides the scientific basis addressing the many questions that surround the appropriate feeding of infants during their first year of life. More than 500 references to the literature are included. The value of this information, which can be used to review feeding practices and develop appropriate guidelines, is further enhanced through the inclusion of annexes presenting practical indications for evaluating the adequacy of support for breastfeeding in maternity wards and for studying the weaning process within the context of programmes intended to improve the nutritional status of infants and young children. The evidence reviewed challenges several widely held assumptions, including the occasions when proprietary formulas are needed, the most appropriate time to introduce complementary foods, and the best feeding regimen for low-birth-weight infants. It is modestly priced and should be available to all paediatricians and others responsible for infant-feeding policies.

Diet, malnutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a WHO study group. WHO Technical Report Series, no. 797. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1990. 203 pages, paperback.

Nutrient-associated chronic diseases due to incorrect balance or an excess of nutrients are now of significant importance in virtually all countries, developing and developed alike. This report discusses relationships between intake of the nutrients that should not be consumed in excess and the incidence of chronic diseases, particularly heart disease, various cancers, and diabetes. It also includes nutritional goals for reducing the risk of chronic disease and their impact on national food, nutrition, agricultural, and economic policies. This a timely and useful update on this topic.

Diet and domestic life in society. Edited by Anne Sharman, Janet Theophano, Karen Curtis, and Ellen Messer. Temple University Press, Philadelphia, Pa., USA, 1991. (ISBN 0-87722-751-9) 288 pages, hardback. US$34.95.

This book, written by anthropologists, illustrates the importance of studying household behaviour as a basis for understanding dietary practices and within-household differences in nutritional status. The examples come from Mexico, Guatemala, Bangladesh, Belize, India, and ethnic groups in the United States. Each focuses on smallscale activities and processes at the local and household level, as these generate and contribute to dietary practices. The approach and data presented have implications for policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation that are missed in studies that do not include the ways in which domestic units actually obtain and distribute food.

Functional significance of iron deficiency. Edited by Cyril O. Enwonwu. Annual Nutrition Workshop Series, vol. 3. Center for Nutrition, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn., USA, 1990. 162 pages. US$20 hardback, US$15 paperback.

This report of a workshop held in October 1989 provides the most comprehensive current summary of the significant recent advances in knowledge of the functional consequences of iron deficiency. With chapters written by authorities in the field, it cites the evidence that iron deficiency, even when not sufficient to cause anaemia, can impair cognitive performance, resistance to infection, and work capacity. Productivity is less and morbidity from infectious disease greater, effects that are reversible with iron therapy. The cognitive changes, however, are reversible only when the iron deficiency is mild. This book will be useful for teaching as well as for reference purposes.

Urban nutrition: Pre-school children. Proceedings of a workshop held in May 1990 in the Netherlands. Foundation for the Advancement of the Knowledge of the Nutrition of Mother and Child in Developing Countries, Ede, Netherlands, 1990. 209 pages, paperback.

This slender volume has chapters on urban nutrition in India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Costa Rica, Peru, Brazil, Guatemala, and Uganda and a general chapter on sub-Saharan Africa. Its objective is to increase recognition of the magnitude of malnutrition in urban areas and the importance of measures to correct it, as well as to emphasize the need for research.

Nutrition during lactation. Committee on Nutritional Status during Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. (ISBN 0309-04391-3) 375 pages, hardback. US$34.95.

This book focuses on healthy US women and their healthy, full-term infants. It reviews breast-feeding practices in the United States and the limited influence of nutritional status on milk volume and composition, and provides recommendations for US women who are breast-feeding their infants. It is not concerned with breast-feeding under conditions of malnutrition and poverty.

Nutrition during pregnancy. Committee on Nutritional Status during Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. (ISBN 0309-04138-4) 475 pages, hardback. US$34.95.

Part I of this book explores relationships between weight gain during pregnancy and other factors in the context of the health of the mother and child. It concludes that for women with normal body-mass index (BMI) a weight gain of between 11.5 and 16 kg (25-35 pounds) is appropriate, with less for those with a lower BMI and more for those with a higher BMI.

Part II examines the satisfying of nutrient needs during pregnancy and recommends low-dose supplementation of iron (e.g. 30 mg of ferrous iron daily) to provide for the increased iron required in the second and third trimesters that is unlikely to be provided by the diet. Routine supplementation with other nutrients is not indicated, but a multivitamin-multimineral supplement may be needed in some special circumstances.

Vitamin intake and health: A scientific review. Suzanne K. Gaby, Adrienne Bendich, Vishwa N. Singh, and Lawrence J. Machlin. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991. 232 pages, illustrated. US$85 USA and Canada; US$102 all other countries.

The chapters on beta-carotene and vitamins C and E are particularly comprehensive and useful in updating evidence for potential relationships to cancer. However, for basic information, the relevant chapters in Present Knowledge in Nutrition (reviewed in the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 328) are equally or more complete.

Agricultural extension for women farmers in Africa. Katrine A. Saito and C. Jean Weidemann. World Bank Discussion Paper no. 103. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1990. (ISBN 0-8213-1657-5) 74 pages, paperback. US$6.95.

Women are responsible for the production of at least 70% of staple foods in Africa. This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines for agricultural extension services to women. The recommendations come from the experiences of African governments, the World Bank and other donors, and researchers.

The great ascent: The rural poor in South Asia. Inderjit Singh. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1990. (ISBN 08018-3953-8) 472 pages. US$39.95.

The thesis of this book is that, although progress has been slow, the poor in Asia are slightly better off than 20 years ago. However, the economic and agricultural gains will not continue without population control, improved education, and greater industrialization.

Tobacco smoking. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcenogenic Risks to Humans, no. 38. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1986. 421 pages.

Tobacco smoking is still on the increase in developing countries and is a greater risk factor than diet for both heart disease and several forms of cancer. This is an authoritative volume on the cancer risks associated with the use of tobacco.

Selected mycotoxins: Ochratoxins, trichothecenes, ergot. Environmental Health Criteria, no. 105. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1990. English only. (ISBN 92-4-157105-5) 263 pages. SwF 29/US$23.20, SwF 20.30 developing countries.

News and notes

Course on food and nutrition planning

The tenth course of the Regional Training Programme on Food and Nutrition Planning, leading to a master's degree in Food and Nutrition Planning, will start in May 1992 at the University of the Philippines at Los Baños. The 18-month course is organized in cooperation with the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The programme is open to a wide range of professionals from government or private institutions involved in planning, implementation, or teaching in the area of food and nutrition. It aims to provide a greater body of personnel who can formulate as well as integrate food and nutrition components into general course work in food and nutrition, economics, statistics, development communication, and food science. The training course includes seminar-workshops, field studies in the village, macro-planning, and agency practicum.

Candidates for the course must possess a bachelor's degree or the equivalent in a relevant field, must have an academic record indicating capability to pursue a graduate programme, and should preferably come from a country of Asia or the Pacific.

Limited fellowships are available. However, applicants are advised to explore sources of funding such as ministries of their own government or international institutions like FAO, UNDP, WHO, UNICEF, Unesco, USAID, SEARCA, the World Bank, etc.

All application documents should be submitted before 31 January 1992. Application forms are available upon request. Address all inquiries and correspondence to: The Director, UPLB-FNP, College, Laguna, 4031 Philippines.


Vital News is a publication of the Vitamin A Field Support Project of the International Science and Technology Institute, Inc. (ISTI). The newsletter is published three times a year and is available free of charge to interested persons.

Send inquiries and comments to: Managing Editor, Vital News, 1601 N. Kent Street, Suite 1601, Arlington, VA 22209, USA.

Mothers and Children is a bulletin on infant feeding and maternal nutrition published three times a year in English, French, and Spanish by the Clearinghouse on Infant Feeding and Maternal Nutrition. It is distributed free in thirdworld countries, and is available for US$10 per year to individuals in North America and Europe.

For more information, write: Nutrition Clearinghouse, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

IDRC Reports is published quarterly by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. Its aim is to keep an international readership informed about the work IDRC supports in developing countries as well as other development issues of interest. The magazine is also available in French as Le CRDI Explore and in Spanish as El CIID Informal Copies are available free of charge to controlled groups in developing countries. Paid subscriptions are $Can 16 for four issues.

To order, write: Communications Division, IDRC, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Canada K1G 3H9.

Note for contributors

The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns (see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the front cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication - which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality. Contributors should review recent issues of the Bulletin for content and style.

Language. Contributions may be in English, French. or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used. the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.

Format. Manuscripts should be typed. double-spaced, with ample margins. Only an original typed copy or a photocopy of equivalent quality should he submitted; photocopies on thin or shiny paper are not acceptable.

When a manuscript has been prepared on a word processor, it will be appreciated if a floppy disk, either 31/2-inch or 51/4-inch. can be included with the manuscript. with an indication of the disk format and the word-processing program used.

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words.

Abstract. An abstract of not more that 150 words should be included with the manuscript. The abstract should state the purposes of the study or investigation, basic procedures (study subjects or experimental animals and observational and analytical methods). main findings (give specific data and their statistical significance if possible), and the principal conclusions. Emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Do not cite references or use abbreviations or acronyms in the abstract.

Tables and figures. Tables and figures should he on separate pages. Tables should be typed double-spaced. Submit only original figures, original line drawings in India ink. or glossy photographs. Labels on the figures should be typed or professionally lettered or printed. not handwritten.

Photographs. Ideally photographic materials should he submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not be returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement. Preferably all measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article. also double-spaced. Unpublished papers should not be listed in references, nor should papers submitted for publication but not yet accepted.

Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text and in tables and figure legends by arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the first mention of the relevant table or figure in the text. Be sure references are complete.

Reference citations should follow the format illustrated below.

Journal reference

- standard journal article (list all authors):

1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

- corporate author:

2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.

Book or other monograph reference

- personal author(s):

3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental. clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

- corporate author:

4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3rd ed. Littleton, Mass. USA: Publishing Sciences Group. 1977.

- editor, compiler, chairman as author:

5. Medioni J. Boesinger E. eds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson, 1977.

- chapter in book:

6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. In: Desai AR. ed. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and highest degree. the name of departments and institutions to which the work should be attributed. the name and address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript, and sources of support for the work. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to he published elsewhere - in the same or modified form - a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts will not be returned unless specifically requested. Proofs will be sent to the authors only in exceptional circumstances.

Contributions should be addressed to:

The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Note a l'intention des auteurs

La rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin recherche des articles traitant de sujets correspondant a ses themes (voir au vérso de la couverture la politique éditoriale de cette revue). La remise d'un manuscrit ne signifie pas sa publication. qui dépend de l'opinion de la rédaction sur son intéret et sa qualité. Les auteurs sont invités a se pencher sur les récents numéros du Bulletin pour prendre connaissance de son contenu et de son style.

Langues. Les manuscrits peuvent etre rédigés en anglais, en français ou en espagnol' et dan ces deux derniers cas, l'auteur ajoutera, si possible, un résumé en anglais.

Format. Les manuscrits doivent etre dactylographiés, en double interligne. avec une marge suffisante. Ne doit etre présenté qu'un exemplaire original dactylographié ou une photocopie de qualité équivalente.

Lorsqu'un manuscrit a été préparé sur un appareil de traitement de texte, un disque ou de 3.50 ou de 5,25 pouces devrait dans toute la mesure possible y être joint en précisant son format et le programme utilisé.

Longueur. Les manuscrits ne dovient pas, ordinairement, dépasser 4 000 mots.

Résumé. Un résumé de 150 mots maximum doit accompagner le manuscrit. Il devra donner les buts de l'étude ou des recherches, les procédures de hase (sujets de l'étude ou animaux expérimentaux et méthodes d'observation et d'analyse), les principaux résultats (fournir des données spécifiques et indiquer dans la mesure du possible leur importance statistique) ainsi que les principales conclusions. Veuillez mettre en relief les aspects nouveaux et importants de l'étude ou des observations. Dans le résumé, ne citez aucun ouvrage de référence et n'utilisez ni abréviations ni sigles.

Tableaux et figures. Ils doivent etre reportés sur des feuillets sépares. Les tableaux doivent etre dactylographiés en double interligne. Veuillez soumettre uniquement des figures originales. des dessins a l'encre de Chine ou des photographies tirées sur papier glacé. Les labels qui apparaissent sur les figures doivent etre dactylographiés ou gravés ou imprimés de maniere professionnelle et non pas écrits a la main.

Photographies. En principe, les matériaux photographiques doivent être remis sous forme de négatifs noir et blanc ou d'épreuves noir et blanc sur papier brillant. Sauf demande expresse les photographies ne seront pas renvoyées.

Unités de mesure. On utilisera de préférence le systeme métrique. Si d'autres systémes sont utilisés, l'équivalent métrique doit etre indiqué.

Références. Les références doivent apparaître a la fin de l'article, en double interligne également. Les documents non publiés ne doivent pas figurer dans les références pas davantage que les documents présentés a des fins de publication mais qui n'ont pas encore été acceptés.

Veuillez numéroter les références dans l'ordre ou elles sont mentionnées dans le texte. Identifiez au moyen d'un chiffre arabe placé entre crochets les références dan le texte, les tableaux et les légendes des figures. Les références cités uniquement dans les tableaux ou les légendes des figures doivent être numérotées en fonction de la premiere fois ou il est fait mention du tableau ou de la figure approprié dans le texte. Assurez-vous que les références sont completes.

Les références citées doivent suivre le format décrit ci-dessous.


- article de journal type (énumérer tous les auteurs):

1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30

- auteur d'une société:

2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.

Livre ou autre monagraphie

- auteur(s) a titre personnel:

3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

- auteur d'une société:

4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3e éd. Littleton, Mass. (E.-U.): Publishing Sciences Group. 1977.

- éditeur, compilateur, président en tant qu'auteur:

5. Medioni J. Boesinger E, éds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.

- chapitre d'un ouvrage:

6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and comparimentalization in cultural change. Dans: Desai AR, éd Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker. 1971.

Identification. Les auteurs doivent indiquer leur nom complet et leur principal diplôme, le nom des départements et des institutions auxquels le travail doit être attribué, le nom et l'adresse de l'auteur chargé de la correspondance sur le manuscrit ainsi que les sources de financement du travail. Si l'article a déja été remis auparavant ou est retenu pour une autre publication - sous la même forme ou sous une forme modifiée-on l'indiquera de façon détaillée.

Copies du manuscrit. L'auteur doit conserver un double. Les manuscrits ne seront pas retournés a moins que leurs auteurs n'en fassent expressément la demande. Les épreuves seront envoyées aux auteurs dans des circonstances exceptionnelles seulement.

Les auteurs s'adresseront a:

The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Nota para los posibles autores

Los editores del Food and Nutrition Bulletin agradecen el envío de contribuciones pertinentes al tema de la revista (vea la política editorial de esta revista en el interior de la tapa anterior). La presentación de un articulo no es garantía de su publicación, la cual dependerá del criterio de los editores en lo que respecta a su pertinencia y calidad. Se ruega a los que deseen colaborar que consulten los números recientes de Food and Nutrition Bulletin para cerciorarse de su contenido y estilo.

Idioma. Las contribuciones podrán remitirse en español, francés o inglés. En caso de utilizar español o francés. el autor deberá incluir, de ser posible, un resumen en inglés.

Formato. Los manuscritos deberán presentarse mecanografiadas, a doble espacio, con márgenes amplios. Solamente se presentarán originales mecanografiados o una fotocopia de los mismos de calidad equivalente. No se admitirán fotocopias en papel fino o satinado.

Si ha preparado el manuscrito con máquina de tratamiento de textos, agradeceremos nos envíe junto al manuscrito una copia del disco floppy, bien en 31/2 pulgadas, bien en 51/4 pulgadas. indicando el formato del disco y el programa de tratamiento de textos que ha utilizado.

Longitud. Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras.

Resúmenes. Se adjuntará al manuscrito un resumen que no exceda de 150 palabras. El resumen indicará el objetivo del estudio o investigación, métodos básicos (individuos, animales seleccionados en experimentos y métodos de observación y análisis), descubrimientos principales (si fuera posible aportando datos específicos y su significado estadístico). y las conclusiones principales. Se enfatizarán los aspectos nuevos e importantes del estudio u observaciones. En el resumen no se citarán referencias ni se usarán abreviaturas ni siglas.

Cuadros y figuras. Todos los cuadros y figuras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros se mecanografiarán a doble espacio. Se presentarán solamente figuras originales, esquemas originales en tinta china o fotografías en papel brillo. Los nombres de las figuras estarán mecanografiados o impresos o rotulados profesionalmente. y no manuscritos.

Fotografías. El material fotográfico se presentará preferentemente en blanco y negro, en negativos o en impresión sobre papel brillante. No se devolverá este material fotográfico a no ser que así lo solicite el remitente.

Unidades de medida . Se utilizará preferentemente el sistema métrico decimal. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.

Referencias. Al final del artículo deberán consignarse las referencias. también en doble espacio. En las referencias no se consignarán documentos que no se hayan publicado, ni aquellos que hayan solicitado su publicación pero que no se han aceptado todavía.

Las referencias se numerarán consecutivamente en el orden en que aparecen en el texto. Las referencias en el texto, en los cuadros y en los epígrafes de figuras se identificarán con números arábigos encerrados entre paréntesis rectangulares. Las referencias que se citan solamente en cuadros o epígrafes de figuras se numerarán de acuerdo con la primera mención que se haga en el texto del cuadro o figura pertinente. Debe asegurarse que se dan todas las referencias.

Las citas hechas a referencias deben adjustarse al formato indicado a continuación.

Referencia a publicación periódica

- articulo modelo de publicación periódica (consignar todos los autores):

1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis critico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

- autores corporativos:

2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Stand J Clin Lab Invest 1976:36: 119-25.

Referencia a libro u otra monografía

- autor(es) personal(es):

3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental, clinical and community studies. Nueva York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

- autor corporativo:

4. Ameritan Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3ra. edición. Littieton, Mass., EE.UU.: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

- editor, recopilador, presidente de consejo como autor:

5. Medioni J, Boesinger E, editores. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson, 1977.

- capitulo de libro:

6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural changa. En: Desai AR, editor. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y titulación más alta, nombre del departamento e instituciones a las que se atribuirá el trabajo, el nombre y la dirección del autor responsable de la correspondencia del manuscrito, y fuentes de sustentación del trabajo. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada, se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.

Copias de la contribución. El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia del material que envíe. No se devolverán los manuscritos a no ser que se pida su devolución. Las correcciones de prueba se enviarán a los autores solamente en casos excepcionales.

Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a:

The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

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