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Assessing vitamin-A status
A modified relative dose response (MRDR) assay has been developed as a new indicator for assessing marginal vitamin-A status.
The relative dose response (RDR) test, developed by Underwood and colleagues , has proved to be a useful indicator of marginal vitamin-A status. After a small oral dose of vitamin A in oil is given, the concentration of plasma retinol (R) rises within five hours to a greater degree in children who are in a deficient or marginal status than in those who are vitamin-Asufficient. This procedure has been validated by relating the RDR percentage value to liver reserves of vitamin A determined by biopsy. The major drawback of using this procedure in the field is the requirement for two blood samples at a five-hour interval.
The MRDR assay is based on exactly the same principle as the RDR. Instead of giving retinyl acetate, however, a small oral dose of a naturally occurring analog, 3,4-didehydroretinyl acetate, is given. After three to eight hours the ratio of didehydroretinol (DR) to R in the plasma is inversely proportional to the liver reserves of vitamin A in the deficient and marginal ranges (less than 0.07 micromol/g liver). The MRDR assay has been validated first in rats and then in humans [2-4] and more recently has been applied to preschool children in the United States and in West Java, Indonesia. These latter studies, now in press [5; 6] have indicated that marginal vitamin-A status is widespread among young Indonesians who show no signs of xerophthalmia. The MRDR has the advantage of requiring a single blood sample but the constraint that an HPLC instrument must be available for analysis.
Further information about the method can be obtained from Dr. James A. Olson, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA, fax 515 294-0453.
The International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU) will hold its thirteenth world congress at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre in Hong Kong 8-12 July 1991. For further information, please contact: 13th IOCU World Congress Secretariat, 250-A Jalan Air Itam, 10460 Penang, Malaysia. Telephone/fax: (60-4) 376955.
Nutrition and health in the elderly
The First European Congress on Nutrition and Health in the Elderly will be held 5-7 December 1991 in Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands. The results of the unique Euronut multi-centre study on the nutrition and health of the elderly of Europe will be presented within a broad international frame of reference. The congress will promote a multidisciplinary approach to the scientific issues of nutrition and health in the elderly.
Further information may be obtained from: Mw. R. Hoogkamer, Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, Netherlands. Telephone: +31 8370-84214; fax: +31 8370-83342.
The Centre for Human Nutrition at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom announces courses in human nutrition leading to a master's degree or a diploma which began in October 1990. Interested persons should inquire of Professor N. W. Read, Director, Centre for Human Nutrition, The University of Sheffield, Northern General Hospital, Herries Road, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. Telephone: 0742 768555 ext. 4681; fax: 0742 728901; telex: 547216 UGSHEF G.
An international course on Food Processing, Quality Assurance, and Marketing in Food-Processing Enterprises is to be held 4 August-1 November 1991 in Wageningen, Netherlands.
The course aims (1) to broaden the participants' views on problems of small- and medium-scale food processing, (2) to upgrade the participants' knowledge concerning the analysis of these problems and the selection of appropriate technology, and (3) to impart techniques for implementation, focusing on quality assurance and marketing. The programme comprises the following modules:
- problem setting,
- how and where to get information on technology,
- how to assure appropriate product quality,
- how to reach the market,
- how to organize training courses in consultancy work,
- product-specific assignment.
The course is intended for professionals from business-advisory, training, and support institutions and technological services for small- and medium-scale food-processing enterprises. It is at the postgraduate level, is given in English, and leads to a certificate. Applicants should have a BSc- or BA-level degree and at least three years of working experience.
Course brochures and application forms are available on request from the International Agriculture Centre, P.O. Box 88, 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands. The closing date for application is 15 May 1991.
The International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) - which has at present 64 national adhering bodies: national research councils, principal academies, and other appropriate scientific groups - has as its objectives to promote international cooperation in the scientific study of nutrition and its application, and to encourage research and the exchange of scientific information in the nutritional sciences.
The IUNS is a member of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), a non-governmental organization comprising 20 member unions, formed to promote international activity in the different branches of science and their application for the benefit of humanity. The IUNS has a special consultative status with FAO, WHO, and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), is an associate member of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, and has signed a memorandum of understanding with the United Nations University. Close cooperation exists with Unesco, the International Union of Food Science and Technology, and various ICSU bodies.
The main scientific work of the IUNS is done by its 5 commissions, 43 committees, and 5 working groups on special topics. The present officers are: President, J. E. Dutra de Oliveira (Brazil); President-Elect, A. Valyasevi (Thailand); Vice-Presidents, A. A. Rerat (France), A. S. Truswell (Australia), B. A. Underwood (USA); Treasurer, E. Menden (Germany); Immediate Past President, M. K. Gabr (Egypt), Secretary General, J. G. A. J. Hautvast (Netherlands).
The IUNS has sponsored fourteen international congresses of nutrition, the most recent having been held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in August 1989. The Fifteenth International Congress of Nutrition will be held in Adelaide, Australia' 26 September to 1 October 1993. Dr. Richard M. Smith, Secretary General for the congress. has requested input from the national adhering bodies concerning possible thematic approaches to the programme and names of scientists who might be asked to lead workshops or symposia. Please send any suggestions to Dr. Gerald F. Combs or Ms. Donna M. Gerardi, USNC/IUNS. National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20418, USA.
The United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination Subcommittee on Nutrition (ACC/ SCN) is the focal point for harmonizing the policies and activities of the United Nations system in the field of nutrition. The Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), which comprises the heads of the UN agencies, recommended the establishment of the Subcommittee on Nutrition in 1977, following the World Food Conference (with particular reference to Resolution V on food and nutrition). This was approved by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The role of the SCN is to serve as a coordinating mechanism, to provide for the exchange of information and technical guidance, and to act dynamically to help the UN system respond to nutritional problems.
The UN system members of the SCN are the United Nations itself, FAO, IAEA, the World Bank, IFAD, ILO. UNDP, UNEP, Unesco, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNRISD, UNU, WFC, WFP, and WHO. From the outset, representatives of bilateral donor agencies have participated actively in SCN activities. The SCN is assisted by an Advisory Group on Nutrition (AGN), composed of six to eight experienced individuals drawn from relevant disciplines and with wide geographical representation. The SCN secretariat is hosted by WHO in Geneva.
The SCN undertakes a range of activities to meet its mandate. Annual meetings have representation from the concerned UN agencies, 10 to 20 donor agencies, and the AGN, as well as invitees on specific topics. These meetings begin with symposia on topics of current importance for policy, and the SCN brings certain such matters to the attention of the ACC. It also sponsors working groups on intersectoral and sector-specific topics. Ten-year programmes to address two major deficiencies - those of vitamin A and of iodine - have been launched.
The SCN compiles and disseminates information on nutrition, reflecting the shared views of the agencies concerned. Regular reports on the world nutrition situation are issued, and flows of external resources to address nutrition problems are assessed. State-of-the-art papers are produced to summarize current knowledge on selected topics. Initiatives decided on by the Subcommittee are taken to promote coordinated activities - interagency programmes, meetings, publications - aimed at reducing malnutrition, primarily in developing countries.
The following publications may be ordered from ACC/ SCN, c/o WHO, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland; fax (41-22) 798891.
First Report on the World Nutrition Situation. 1987.
Supplement on Methods and Statistics to the First Report on the World Nutrition Situation. 1988.
Update on the Nutrition Situation: Recent Trends in Nutrition in 33 Countries. 1989.
Malnutrition and Infection in the Classroom. By E. Pollitt. 1990. (Published by Unesco; can be ordered from Unesco or through the SCN)
ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art papers:
Nutrition Education: A State-of-the-Art Review. By
Robert C. Hornik. 1985. (SOA no. 1)
Delivery of Oral Doses of Vitamin A to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency and Nutritional Blindness. By Keith P. West, Jr., and Alfred Sommer. 1987. (SOA no. 2)
The Prevention and Control of iodine Deficiency Disorders. By Basil S. Hetzel. 1988. (SOA no. 3)
Women's Role in Food Chain Activities and Their Implications for Nutrition. By Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen, Ophelia Mascarenhas, and Margareta Wandel. 1989 (SOA no. 4)
Malnutrition and Infection: A Review. By A. Tompkins and F. Watson. 1989. (SOA no. 5)
Among those who reviewed papers for inclusion in the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 12 (1990), were: Lindsay Allen, Mary Ann Anderson, Ricardo Bressani, James D. Cook, Sheila Cominsky, Renée Dankerlin, Carlos Daza, Hernán Delgado, Billie DeWalt, Ronald Fichtner, Judson Harper, Guillermo Herrera, Abraham Horwitz, Richard Jansen, Ellen Messer, Peter Pellett, Per Pinstrup-Andersen, William Rand, Shlomo Reutlinger, David Sahn, Mary Scrimshaw. Keith Steinkraus, Lance Taylor, Alberto Torres, Barbara Underwood, John Wyon, Vernon Young, and Marian Zeitlin.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Editor: Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw
Assistant Editor: Ms. Edwina B. Murray
Editorial Consultant: Ms. Sarah Jeffries
Programme Co-ordinating Office
Harvard Center for Population Studies
9 Bow St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Telephone: (617) 495-0417. Fax: (617) 495-5418
Telex: 92 1496. E-Mail: UNUCPO@HARVARDA.BITNET
Programme Director: Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw
Associate Programme Director: Dr. Guillermo Herrera
Programme Assistant: Ms. Edwina B. Murray
Secretary: Ms. Sandy Lee
At the UNU Centre, Tokyo:
Training and Fellowship Officer: Dr. Abraham Besrat
CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CFTRI). Mysore 57(8)13, India. Tel. 22298. Cable: UNVERCENT MYSORE. Telex: 0846-241 FTRI IN. Co-ordinator: Dr. D. Rajagopal Rao
DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE. UNIVERSITY OF GHANA (DNFS). P.O. Box 134, Legon. Ghana. Cable: UNIVERSITY LEGON. Co-ordinator: Dr. R. Orraca-Tetteh
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF IFE. Ile-lfe. Nigeria. Tel. 2290 to 2299. Co-ordinator: Dr. J. O. Adejuwon
INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY (IATA). Jaime Roig 11, Valencia 10, Spain. Tel. 36908-U0. Cable: IATA Valencia 10, Spain. Co-ordinator: Dr. Salvador Barber
INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION, MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY (INMU). Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Tel. 282-6435. Coordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi
INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY (INTA). University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Tel. 214105, 214030. Cable: INTA CHILE. Co-ordinator: Dr. Sergio Valiente
INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION OF CENTRAL AMERICAN AND PANAMA (INCAP). Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Tel. 43762. Cable: INCAP GUATEMALA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Hernán Delgado
THE INTERNATIONAL FOOD, NUTRITION, AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. Harvard Center for Population Studies, 9 Bow St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Tel. (617) 495-0417. Fax: (617) 496-5418. Telex: 92 1496. E-Mail: UNUCPO@HARVARDA.BITNET Co-ordinator: Dr. Nevin S Scrimshaw
KOREA ADVANCED INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (KAIST). P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul. Republic of Korea. Tel. (967) 8801. Cable: KISTROK. Telex: KISTROK K 27380. Co-ordinator: Dr. Tai-Wan Kwon
LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE AND TROPICAL MEDICINE (LSHTM). Keppel Street (Gower Street), London WC1E 7HT, UK. Tel. 01-636 8636. Co-ordinator: Dr. Philip Payne
NATIONAL FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE ( NFRI ). 2- 1 -2 Kannondai, Yatabe-machi. Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken 300-21, Japan. Tel. 02875-6-8011. Co-ordinator: Dr. Keiji Umeda
NETHERLANDS INTERNATIONAL NUTRITION INSTITUTE (NINI). Lawickse Allee 11, P.O. Box 88, 67(K) AB, Waegningen, Netherlands. Tel. (08370) 19040. Co-ordinator: Dr. Joseph Hautvast
THE NUTRITION CENTER OF THE PHILIPPINES (NCP). Nutrition Center of the Philippines Bldg., South Super Highway, Nichols Interchange, Makati, Metro Manila 3116, Philippines. Tel. 85-30-71 to -79. Cable: NUTRICEN MANILA. Coordinator: Dr. Mercedes de Solon.
UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI (UNK) Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kabete Campus, P.O. Box 41670, Nairobi, Kenya. Co-ordinator: Dr. A. A. Kielmann
UNIVERSITY OF SAO PAULO (USP). School of Public Health, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715. São Paulo, S.P.. Brazil Coordinator: Dr. Ruy Laurenti
UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES (UWI). St Augustine Campus: Faculty of Agriculture. Department of Crop Science, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Tel. 662-7171 Cable: STOMATA PORT OF SPAIN. Resident Coordinator: Dr, Lloyd Rankine. Mona Campus: Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Mona. Kingston 7. Jamaica, Tel. 927-6661. Cable: UNIVERS JAMAICA. Contact: Dr. Michael Golden
Other co-operating organizations
Through the British Council:
Direct co-operative relationship:
International scientific unions:
The United Nations system:
The UNU Programme on Food and Nutrition for Human and Social Development co-operates with the appropriate units or divisions of the following organizations with which the University has memoranda of understanding:
Chronic energy deficiency
International Dietary Energy Consultative Croup (IDECG). Secretariat: Nestlé Foundation, 4 Place de la Gare, Lausanne, Switzerland. Executive Secretary: Dr. Beat Schürch. Tel. 021-20 33 51. Telex: 454299 TXC CH. Fax: (Nestlé Foundation) 41 2 120 7524. Executive committee: Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw, Chairman; Dr. Joseph Hautvast, Dr. Beat Schürch
Division of Nutrition, National Institute of Nutrition, Calle Vasco de Quiroga No. 15 Col. y Deleg. Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Principal investigator: Dr. Héctor Bourges
Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Principal investigator: Dr. Teshome Demeke
Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, 29 Nan Wei Road, Beijing 100050, China. Principal investigator: Dr. Chen Xue-Cun
Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Sergio Valiente
National Institute of Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, Rome, Italy. Principal investigator: Dr. Anna Ferro-Luzzi
Nutrition Research and Development Centre, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi
Nutrition Research Centre, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore 560 034, India. Principal investigator: Dr. Prakash S. Shetty
Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Pediatría, Facultad de Medicina, Apartado Aéreo 2188, Call., Colombia. Principal investigator: Dr. Julio C. Reina
University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Principal investigator: Dr. Sally McGregor
Beijing Medical College-UNICEF, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Beijing, China. Principal investigator: Dr, Shiu-yun Liu
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU), Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Tomas Walter
Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP). Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Dr. Benjamin Torún
Institute of Public Health, Rockefellerova 7, Zagreb. Yugoslavia. Principal investigator: Dr. Ratko Buzina.
Laboratory of Iron Deficiency Study (LIDS), Department of Pediatrics, First Clinical College, Beijing Medical University, West City, Beijing 100034, China. Principal investigator: Dr. Chen-Ting Chin
National Research Centre, National Academy of Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Sohair Salem
National Institute of Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Mohammed A. Hussein
Nutrition Research and Development Centre, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi
Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (IVIC), Apartado 1827, Caracas, Venezuela. Principle investigator: Dr. Miguel Layrisse
Nutrition and primary health care
Baluchistan Integrated Programme Area Directorate, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Co-investigators: Farhat Sultana and Pamela Hunte
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI). P.O. Box 140, Kingston 17, Jamaica. Principal investigator: Dr. A.W. Patterson
Centre for Social Research and Chancellor College, University of Malawi, Box 278, Zomba, Malawi. Principal investigator: Dr. Christine Lamba
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Yongyout Kachonpadunkitti
Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) (for Central America), P.O. Box I 188, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Lic. Elena Hurtado
Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago I 1, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Maria de la Luz Alvarez
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Management Science, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea. Principal investigator: Dr. Kong-Kyun Ro
Save the Children Fund, CPO Box 992, Kathmandu, Nepal. Principal investigator: Dr. Vijaya L. Shrestha
Society for Economic and Social Studies. B-1. 2nd Floor LSC, J Block, Saket, New Delhi 110 017, India. Principal investigator: Dr. D. Raghunandan
UNICEF: USA, Evaluation Office, 3 United Nations Plaza. New York, NY 10017, USA. Dr. Susi Kessler
UN/FAO World Food Programme, Room F, 747 Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Dr. Jens H. Schulthes, Senior Programme Officer, Project Management Division
Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia. Professors María E. Romero and Adela Morales de Look
University of Ife, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology. Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Principal investigator: Dr. Simi Afonia
University of Nairobi, Institute of African Studies, Nairobi, Kenya. Principal investigator: Dr. David O. Nyamwaya
World Bank, 1818 H St., NW, Washington, D.C., USA. Dr. Michael Cernea, Sociology Advisor
Brazil: Dra. Clarice Mota, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Sociais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Largo de Sao Francisco, 1/4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Tel. (021) 239-1407
Brazil: Maria Cecília de Sousa Minayo, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Brasil. Rua General Cristovão Barcelo. 24/802 Laranjeiras. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. CEP: 22251. Tel. (021) 2900387
Ecuador: Jasmina Estupinan, Psiconsult. Apdo. Postal 148C, Batan 124 y Eloy Alfaro. Quito, Ecuador
Somalia: Asha Mohamud, Deputy Director, FH/FP Unit, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1750, Mogadisho. Somalia. Tel. 81977
International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS)
Secretariat: Bldg. N52-457. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave.. Cambridge MA 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 253-8004. Telex: 650 2688345. Fax: ( + 1 overseas) (617) 491-6266
Project Co-ordinator: Dr. John Klensin
Executive Committee: Dr. Vernon Young, Chairman: Dr. Ricardo Bressani. Vice-Chairman
Committee on Users and Needs: Dr. Gaurth Hansen. Chairman
Committee on Data Quality: Dr. David Southgate. Chairman
Committee on Terminology and Nomenclature: Dr. Stewart Truswell, Chairman
Committee on Information Systems: Dr. John Klensin. Chairman
Regional liaison groups:
AFROFOODS. Co-ordinator: Mr. Claver R. Temalilwa. Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Dar es Salaam. Tanzania
ASlAFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
EUROFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Clive West, Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands
LATINFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Ricardo Bressani. Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Guatemala City, Guatemala
MENAFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Mohamed Amr Hussein, Director, Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt
NOAFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Alex Campbell, Ottawa. Ontario Canada
NORDICFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Åke Bruce, Swedish National Food Administration, Uppsala. Sweden
OCEANIAFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Ruth English. Department of Community Services and Health. Canberra Australia
The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns (see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the front cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication - which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality. Contributors should review recent issues of the Bulletin for content and style.
Language. Contributions may be in English, French. or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used. the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.
Format. Manuscripts should be typed. double-spaced, with ample margins. Only an original typed copy or a photocopy of equivalent quality should he submitted; photocopies on thin or shiny paper are not acceptable.
When a manuscript has been prepared on a word processor, it will be appreciated if a floppy disk, either 31/2-inch or 51/4-inch. can be included with the manuscript. with an indication of the disk format and the word-processing program used.
Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words.
Abstract. An abstract of not more that 150 words should be included with the manuscript. The abstract should state the purposes of the study or investigation, basic procedures (study subjects or experimental animals and observational and analytical methods). main findings (give specific data and their statistical significance if possible), and the principal conclusions. Emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Do not cite references or use abbreviations or acronyms in the abstract.
Tables and figures. Tables and figures should he on separate pages. Tables should be typed double-spaced. Submit only original figures, original line drawings in India ink. or glossy photographs. Labels on the figures should be typed or professionally lettered or printed. not handwritten.
Photographs. Ideally photographic materials should he submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not be returned unless a specific request is made.
Units of measurement. Preferably all measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.
References. References should be listed at the end of the article. also double-spaced. Unpublished papers should not be listed in references, nor should papers submitted for publication but not yet accepted.
Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text and in tables and figure legends by arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the first mention of the relevant table or figure in the text. Be sure references are complete.
Reference citations should follow the format illustrated below.
- standard journal article (list all authors):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.
- corporate author:
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.
Book or other monograph reference
- personal author(s):
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental. clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
- corporate author:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3rd ed. Littleton, Mass. USA: Publishing Sciences Group. 1977.
- editor, compiler, chairman as author:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E. eds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson, 1977.
- chapter in book:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. In: Desai AR. ed. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.
Identification. Contributors should give their full name and highest degree. the name of departments and institutions to which the work should be attributed. the name and address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript, and sources of support for the work. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to he published elsewhere - in the same or modified form - a note should be included giving the details.
Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts will not be returned unless specifically requested. Proofs will be sent to the authors only in exceptional circumstances.
Contributions should be addressed to:
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
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