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News and notes


Conference announcements

European conference on food and nutrition policy

The first European Conference on Food and Nutrition Policy will be held in Budapest, 1-5 October 1990, called by the WHO Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the Hungarian Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.

The purpose of the conference is to show how health can be included in food-policy planning and how different sectors can work together: Those who are responsible for putting food on the market and those who provide information about nutrition and health should strive for the same goals. Not only should consumers learn how to make healthy choices, but producers should also contribute by making the healthy choices the easy choices.

The conference will be truly multi-sectoral. Experts on agriculture, industry, health and nutrition, education, and media will all contribute to a common plan of action that can be used by countries that would like to promote health through good nutrition. Professional input will be provided by some of the leading nutrition experts in Europe today, who have been advisers to the nutrition programme in the WHO Regional Office for Europe or who have taken part in the preparatory work for the conference.

Participation in the conference will be by invitation only. Delegations, representing the various sectors mentioned above, will be invited from each of the 32 European member states of WHO, together with a number of participants from other regions.

The officer responsible for the conference organization is Elisabet Helsing, Regional Officer for Nutrition, Nutrition Unit, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark.


European nutrition conference

The sixth European Nutrition Conference, sponsored by the Federation of European Nutrition Societies, and being organized by the Greek Society of Nutrition and Foods, will be held in Athens, 26-28 May 1991. The language of the conference will be English. The main topics will be current perspectives on diet and disease, factors determining individual eating behaviour, biotechnology and the future of agriculture, novel foods, and a European nutrition policy.

For more information, write to: Sixth FENS European Nutrition Conference, c/o Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Athens School of Public Health, 196 Alexandras Ave., GR-11521 Athens, Greece.


Street foods

Street foods are ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold, and often prepared, by vendors and hawkers especially in streets and other similar public places. Street foods have an enormous impact on the urban food supply, economically as well as socially and nutritionally. Activities reviewing various aspects of the composition, availability, and safety of street foods have been carried out with the assistance of the FAO in collaboration with a number of countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia to date.



Workshops on this subject were held for Latin America and the Caribbean in 1985 and for Asia and the Pacific in 1986. The findings of these workshops highlighted the governments' concern about the various problems associated with this large-scale but in most instances unrecognized industry and identified fields for further development and activities. The workshop recommendations resulted in FAO follow-up activities in some countries and also at regional levels.


Codex Alimentarius committees

Committees of the joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission have shown an increasing awareness of street foods at the international level, including their socio-economic significance. In 1987, at the 33rd session of the Executive Committee of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the elaboration of a code of practice covering the hygienic aspects of the handling of street foods was raised. The Committee on General Principles supported the proposition that such a code of practice should be elaborated by the various Codex regional committees in coordination with the Committee on Food Hygiene. The Coordinating Committee for Latin America and the Caribbean, at its fifth session, in 1987, proposed a preliminary draft code of practice for street foods. The Co-ordinating Committee for Asia and the Pacific also unanimously supported elaboration of a code of practice and undertook the preparation of a draft document on this subject.


FAO expert consultation

Upon reviewing the activities conducted to date, the FAO realized that co-ordination of these efforts was much needed and therefore called for an Expert Consultation on Street Foods, which was held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 5-9 December 1988.

The consultation reviewed the experiences of different countries and also assessed the health and socio-economic significance of street foods at the international level. In particular it recognized the vast amount of money involved, the large amounts of agricultural products utilized in this informal sector in the preparation and sale of these foods, and the large number of people employed, with women forming a large part of the sector.

The consultation considered, among other things, possible technical requirements regarding street foods in developed and developing countries. It recommended that national authorities take early steps to officially recognize and assist the street-food industry in order to initiate activities to upgrade its performance. Activities identified as needing to be given preliminary priority included the training of street-food vendors in improved handling practices and consumer education, as well as the preparation of legislation and regulations concerning street foods. Africa was identified as a region for priority action.

The role of international organizations was recognized, and the consultation urged international organizations such as the FAO to strengthen their actions to co-ordinate activities and assist in improving the handling of street foods. In addition, a number of strategies for future action were identified. The need for providing more complementary information, in particular on economic aspects, as well as current activities in Africa was stressed. Guidelines or suggestions for the management of the phenomenon at the national and local levels were identified as a tool that needs to be provided by international organizations. Strong support was given to the work of the various Codex committees in developing codes of practice at regional levels.

The report of the Expert Consultation on Street Foods, in English, French, or Spanish, FAO Technical Paper no. 46, can be purchased from FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.


Nutrition and the road to health

The following are excerpts from a statement prepared by the eminent epidemiologist Thomas McKeown for a meeting of the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research shortly before his death in June 1988. Essentially, in his most important writings, Professor McKeown argued that the key to health lay in changes in life-style.

With its emphasis on equity, acceptability, self determination and social justice, the concept of primary health care reflects admirably the spirit of the 'health for all" commitment. It is, however, a comprehensive approach which includes all the major developments desirable for health under more or less ideal conditions. In the foreseeable future many Third World countries will be unable to afford all of these developments, and it is therefore necessary to assign priority between them according to their effectiveness.

For this purpose there are two sources of enlightenment to which we can turn, the experience of industrial countries during the last two centuries, and the experience of some developing countries which have made rapid progress during the last few decades. Conclusions from these sources are reasonably consistent particularly on the basic observation that the advances in health were due almost entirely to the decline of mortality from infectious diseases.

In developed countries, the infections declined because of (a) increased resistance brought about by improvement in nutrition and, later to a lesser extent, immunization and (b) reduced exposure, which resulted from hygienic measures (in respect of water, sanitation, food, and housing) introduced progressively from the late nineteenth century.

In the developing countries the decline of mortality appears to have been due predominantly to better nutrition, for in some countries which in a few decades have attained Western standards of health there were no substantial advances in the other major influences. However, there were some other developments which contributed powerfully if indirectly to health: education, particularly of women; equity of access to health resources; political and social will to improve health; above all, control of fertility, which safeguarded the advances from the effects of rising numbers.

In the light of this assessment of the contribution of different influences, developing countries which do not have the resources needed to provide all the services specified under primary health care-and that is the position in which nearly all are placed-would be well advised to give high priority in research and services to nutrition, immunization, and sanitation. And if limited resources prevent the full provision of sanitary services, as they are likely to do, a large advance can be made by increasing resistance to infection.

It is hardly possible to overestimate the significance of the observation that in China and Kerala the advances were due almost entirely to better nutrition; there were no substantial improvements in water, sanitation, and personal care, and immunization coverage was low..


Primary health care: an all-inclusive approach

The content of primary health care was outlined clearly in report of the International Conference at Alma-Ata. Primary health care should include at least: education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods of identifying, preventing, and controlling them; promotion of food supply and proper nutrition; an adequate supply of safe water, and basic sanitation; maternal and child health care, including family planning; immunization against the major infectious diseases; prevention and control of locally endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries; promotion of mental health; and provision of essential drugs.

Moreover this comprehensive agenda was regarded as a statement of basic requirements, to be supplemented according to the economic and social values of each country and its communities. From this statement it is evident that primary health care, so conceived, covers all the major developments needed for health under more or less ideal conditions. It does not attempt to judge the order in which the developments should be promoted where conditions are far from ideal, as they will be in many countries for a long time to come.

The inevitability of deficiencies, and hence the need for priorities, is well illustrated by two of the influences that are most critical for health: nutrition and sanitation. The recent First Report on the World Nutrition Situation [ACC/SCN, 1987] concluded that malnutrition has decreased in Asia and Central America, has remained stable in South America, and has increased in much of Africa. Since the population of the world is expected to double before it stabilizes, and the population of Africa will increase about six times, on the basis of present policies it seems inevitable that serious food deficiencies will continue well into the next century. And the WHO report on sanitary progress during the present decade makes it evident that we are not in sight of the time when clean water and adequate sanitation will be generally available in developing countries, particularly in rural areas..


Experience of developed countries

In developed countries the improvement in health since the eighteenth century resulted mainly-until 1900 almost wholly-from the decline of mortality from infectious diseases. The direct influences which led to the decline of the infections were as follows:

  1. increased resistance brought about by: (a) improved nutrition, [which] was responsible for the advance in health in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries where exposure to infection was increasing because of rapid population growth and defective hygiene; (b) immunization, [which] accelerated the decline of mortality in the twentieth century, particularly by reducing the pool of infectious people;
  2. reduced exposure to infection, mainly through hygienic measures applied progressively from the late nineteenth century. The important developments were clean water, improved sanitation, and, a little later, advances in the handling of food and improvements in housing. To a limited extent exposure was also reduced by treatment.

However, there were other influences which contributed powerfully although indirectly to health: control of fertility came at precisely the time needed to safeguard the advances from the effects of rising numbers; improvements in education more or less coincided with the advance in health; and economic growth provided the resources which led to a rising standard of living, including most significantly improvement in nutrition and hygiene..


Experience of developing countries

Fortunately, additional evidence is now available from a number of Third World countries which have advanced rapidly in health: Sri Lanka, Costa Rica, India (Kerala State), China, Thailand, Cuba, Jamaica, and a few others. The conclusions which follow are based on books, papers, and case studies which have examined this experience. . . and it will be convenient to examine the direct influence under the same headings as in developed countries.

  1. Increased resistance to infection. All of the countries which advanced rapidly achieved a substantial improvement in nutrition which led to increased resistance. Indeed in some countries this was the only important direct influence. It is perhaps surprising that immunization appears to have contributed relatively little to the advances, not of course because it was ineffective, but because the reduction of mortality occurred in a period when vaccine coverage was still low.
  2. Reduced exposure. Improvements in water supply and sanitation were important influences in industrial countries, but they do not seem to have been very significant in the Third World countries which have advanced. For example, the coverage of the population by provision of clean water and safe sanitary measures was low in China, Sri Lanka, and Kerala-lower indeed than in many other developing countries-although their death rates were well below average levels. It is also clear that treatment of established diseases contributed little to the reduction of exposure, for in several countries there was little improvement in personal care services.

It follows that developing countries which do not have the resources needed to provide all the services specified under primary health care-and that is the position in which almost all are placed-would be well advised to give high priority in research and services to nutrition, immunization and hygiene. And if the resources available limit full development of sanitary services in the foreseeable future (as they are likely to do), a very large advance can be achieved by increasing resistance to infection; in China and Kerala, which in a few decades have reached Western standards of health, the advances were due almost entirely to better nutrition..

Professor McKeown went on to summarize conclusions in relation to four critical influences: food, immunization, drinking water and sanitation, and control of numbers. Here is an except from his conclusions regarding food.



A World Bank study of the relation between poverty and hunger quoted an edict by the Emperor Wen in 113 BC: "Why is the food of the people so scarce? . . .Where does the blame lie?" The deficiency is even more remarkable today, because in many countries and in the world as a whole food supplies are believed to be adequate. The World Bank study concluded: "The often predicted Malthusian nightmare of population outstripping food production has never materialized. Instead the world faces a narrower problem; many people do not have enough to eat despite there being food enough for all. This is not a failure of food production, still less of agricultural technology. It is a failure to provide all people with the opportunity to secure enough food-something that is very hard to do in low-income countries." Although one would question the statement that population growth has never outstripped food production, it is an accurate assessment of the position in many countries today.

The First Report on the World Nutrition Situation made an appraisal of trends in nutritional indicators from 1960 until the most recent year available, usually 1985. The report concluded that although nutrition has improved over the last 25 years in most parts of the world, in sub-Saharan Africa there has been declining food availability and increased malnutrition, and in South America there has been no significant improvement. Improvements in living conditions recorded during the 1970s have slowed or halted with the severe economic recession of the early 1980s, and this is affecting child nutrition.

In the light of our conclusion concerning the critical role of nutrition, the data for China in this report are of particular interest. Over the past 25 years, China's per capita food production increased 75% and its population by around 60%; dietary energy supply increased by approximately 40% between 1961-63 and 1983-85. There were corresponding increases in birth weight and child growth rates, and infant mortality fell from 200 (per 1,000 live births) before 1949 to about 40 in 1980, and to 35 in 1982. As already noted, apart from the improvement in nutrition there were no other major changes which could account for the reduction of mortality.

The increased food production during the last 35 years has resulted mainly from technological advances, the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, increases in the amount of irrigated land, and the introduction of high yielding disease-resistant seeds. As a result of these advances, grain production more than kept pace with the growth of populations, both in the world at large and in developing countries considered as a whole. However, for a number of reasons the practice of equating food resources with the number of people gives a misleading picture of the effects on nutrition..

It is evident that malnutrition and its sinister effects on health are common in developing countries, and result mainly from international and national policies which prejudice food production and distribution. The international community can contribute in many ways-with resources, with advice, and not least by refraining from encouraging or requiring Third World countries to absorb food surpluses (the grain and butter mountains) or to adopt agricultural and economic policies which contribute to their poverty. However, the causes of food insecurity and the resultant ill health are determined largely by national policies. The chief requirements are (a) to ensure an adequate food supply through policies which promote domestic production (by shifting resources from industry to agriculture, from large to small farms, from capital intensive to labour-intensive activities) and (b) to give people at risk of food insecurity the opportunity to earn an adequate income. The problem of food deficiency is determined essentially by poverty.


SCN statement on nutrition, health, and school performance

On the occasion of the sixteenth session of the Sub-committee on Nutrition (ACCISCN) of the United Nations, a symposium was held at Unesco's headquarters on the subject of nutrition and school performance. Informed by state-of-the-art presentations from experts in this field and by the extensive discussion that resulted among the participants, the SCN notes that consensus exists about the following:

The SCN is of the opinion that enough is known to recommend health and nutrition programmes among efforts to increase school enrolment and learning. The education sector should promote activities in its own and other sectors that would combat early-childhood malnutrition and morbidity and hence would represent an investment in human capital. It is explicitly clear that one of the benefits of such investment will be in the area of school performance and hence greater effectiveness of activities in the education sector. The school setting itself offers opportunities to correct health and nutrition problems of public health significance. Through proper attention to curricular content and activities in and out of school, the school setting also allows educators to alter behaviour and dietary practices to the benefit of future generations. School feeding programmes may also contribute to the correction of specific nutrient deficiencies and short-term hunger. Vitamin and mineral supplements may be required where conditions are severe. Efforts should also be included to combat parasitic diseases when appropriate. In general, feeding and health programmes should be so planned that they facilitate unconstrained growth and development throughout the school-age period, including adolescence.

The SCN is of the view that the education sector should give increased importance to the control of health and nutrition problems of school children because effective actions of this nature will result in increased school enrolment and efficiency. In particular, the SCN enthusiastically supports Unesco's catalytic role in this area and hopes that the World Conference on Education For All, to be held in Bangkok, will lead to appropriate guidelines for action and foster the political will necessary for successful implementation.


Nutrition, health, and environment in China

The Cornell-China-Oxford Research Project on Nutrition, Health, and Environment, which started in 1983, is a large international study on the health, eating habits, environment, and social practices within the People's Republic of China, designed to investigate interrelationships between food, environment, and diseases. The principal investigators are nutritional scientists, physicians, and epidemiologists from Cornell University, the Chinese Academies of Preventive Medicine and of Medical Sciences, and the University of Oxford, who work in collaboration with other scientists from the United States, France, Britain, Taiwan, and other countries.

A large quantity of survey data and biological samples have been gathered from more than 6,000 individuals in 130 rural areas in 24 provinces of China, to provide the most comprehensive data base that exists on the multiple causes of disease.

China was chosen for this health investigation because of its unique characteristics: it has a huge population; it encompasses a wide range of ecological zones, mortality rates for various diseases, and food and other consumption patterns; and a large range of exposure to both industrial and non-industrial carcinogens. In addition China is at a stage of epidemiological transition where diseases of industrialization such as lung cancer and heart disease are becoming more prevalent than diseases of underdevelopment such as infectious diseases. Another remarkable feature of China for epidemiological studies is that there has been little mobility of the population, so that life styles and dietary patterns have remained relatively stable in each area. These characteristics lead to clear cut geographic differences in disease patterns from one county to the next. Mortality rates for a specific disease can vary by more than a hundredfold. This provides a level of sensitivity that is unlikely to be produced in other countries. The methods of data collection have been extremely carefully prepared and scrutinized to maximize the reliability of the data set. The information emerging from the relationship of these differences to environmental and dietary factors will have significance not only for China but also internationally.

More than 350 items of information on biochemical indicators, carcinogens and viral exposure, dietary practices, physical and reproductive characteristics, clinical status, smoking and drinking practices, and other habits have been recorded. Initial computer analysis carried out at the University of Oxford has produced several thousand statistically significant associations, many of which provide interesting insights into possible causal factors, but a great deal of work still needs to be done on the interpretation of these findings. Sections of this database have been made available to associated research groups throughout the world for further analysis and interpretation in the expectation that many new insights into the causation and prevention of disease will emerge.

Based on the full analysis of only a small part of the data, a number of associations and hypotheses on causal relationships between food, environment, and diseases are beginning to emerge. Some findings are, however, more fully developed, of which only few examples are given in what follows.

At the low plasma-cholesterol levels found in China the quantitative relationship between plasma total cholesterol and coronary-heart-disease (including myocardial infarction plus coronary heart disease) mortality is that which would be expected from a linear extrapolation of the relationship previously observed for several Western populations in which mean plasma-cholesterol levels are much higher. This observation suggests that there is no threhold of plasma cholesterol below which coronary-heart-disease mortality remains constant. However, within the low ranges of plasma cholesterol and coronary-heart-disease mortality in China, no significant association was found.

On the same theme, in the absence of any association found between red-blood-cell (RBC) oleic acid and plasma cholesterol, the study was able to provide an alternative hypothesis to explain the observed beneficial affects of oleic acid on reducing cardiovascular disease. It was found that, in the phosphatidyl fraction of the RBC membrane, the oleic acid concentration was significantly negatively correlated with its arachidonic acid concentration. Assuming that the same is true for the platelet membrane and considering that thromboxanes (potent inducers of platelet aggregation and platelet release reactions and also a vasoconstrictor) derived from arachidonic acid increase platelet aggregation, the potential for aggregation may be reduced by oleic acid displacing arachidonic acid in the membrane. In other words, the beneficial effect of oleic acid may relate to reducing clot formation rather than to effects on plaque deposition.

Contrary to the recently postulated relationship between low plasma-cholesterol levels and higher total cancer rates, no evidence of such association was found in this study and if anything the opposite trend was indicated. The study provided support for the hypothesis that at least part of the geographic variation in esophageal cancer is diet-related, suggesting low levels of vitamin C to be possibly involved.

Esophageal-cancer mortality was found to be significantly higher in areas of low plasma vitamin C and low fruit consumption. Most non-cancer disease mortalities are inversely related to both socio-economic and general nutritional status, except for coronary and hypertensive heart diseases and stroke which are negatively associated with socio-economic status but positively associated with the general nutritional status. Salt intakes may account for part of this observation. In the case of mortalities from most cancers (including leukaemia and lung, breast, and lower bowel cancers) there are strong positive associations with both socio-economic and general nutritional status. Esophageal, stomach, and cervical cancers were, however, positively related to the general nutritional status and inversely to socio-economic status.

A monograph presenting the original data and preliminary data processing, Diet, Lifestyle, and Mortality in China: A Study of the Characteristics of 65 Countries, by J. Chen, T. C. Campbell, J. Li, and R. Peto, is scheduled for publication by the Oxford University Press.

Enquiries on the project should be directed to Dr. Thierry Brun, Co-ordinator of the China-Oxford Project on Nutrition, Health, and Environment, MVR, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.


Note for contributors

The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns (see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the front cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication-which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality. Contributors should review recent issues of the Bulletin for content and style.

Language. Contributions may be in English. French. Or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used. the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.

Format. Manuscripts should be typed. double-spaced. with ample margins. Only an original typed copy or a photocopy of equivalent quality should be submitted: photocopies on thin or shiny paper are not acceptable.

When a manuscript has been prepared on a word processor, it will he appreciated if a floppy disk. either 31/2 - inch or 5 1/4 - inch, can be included with the manuscript. with an indication of the disk format and the word-processing program used.

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words.

Abstract. An abstract of not more that 150 words should he included with the manuscript. The abstract should state the purposes of the study or investigation. basic procedures (study subjects or experimental animals and observational and analytical methods). main findings (give specific data and their statistical significance if possible), and the principal conclusions. Emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Do not cite references or use abbreviations or acronyms in the abstract.

Tables and figures. Tables and figures should be on separate pages. Tables should be typed doublespaced. Submit only original figures. original line drawings in India ink. or glossy photographs. Labels on the figures should be typed or professionally lettered or printed. not handwritten.

Photographs. Ideally photographic materials should be submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not he returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement. Preferably all measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article, also double-spaced. Unpublished papers should not be listed in references. nor should papers submitted for publication hut not yet accepted.

Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text and in tables and figure legends by arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the first mention of the relevant table or figure in the text. Be sure references are complete.

Reference citations should follow the format illustrated below.

Journal reference

-standard journal article (list all authors):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D, Ottenberger A, Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

-corporate author:
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:1 19-25.

Book or other monograph reference

-personal author(s):
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

-corporate author:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3rd cd. Littleton. Mass, USA: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

-editor, compiler, chairman as author:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E. eds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.

-chapter in book:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. In: Desai AR. ed. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and highest degree. the name of departments and institutions to which the work should he attributed, the name and address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript, and sources of support for the work. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere-in the same or modified form-a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts will not be returned unless specifically requested. Proofs will be sent to the authors only in exceptional circumstances.

Contributions should be addressed to:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


Note à l'intention des auteurs

La rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin recherche des articles traitant de sujets correspondant à ses thèmes (voir au vérso de la couverture la politique éditoriale de cette revue). La remise d'un manuscrit ne signifie pas sa publication, qui dépend de l'opinion de la rédaction sur son intérêt et sa qualité. Les auteurs sont invités à se pencher sur les récents numéros du Bulletin pour prendre connaissance de son contenu et de son style.

Langues. Les manuscrits peuvent être rédigés en anglais, en français ou en espagnol, et dan ces deux derniers cas, l'auteur ajoutera. si possible, un résumé en anglais.

Format. Les manuscrits doivent être dactylographiés, en double interligne. avec une marge suffisante. Ne doit être présenté qu'un exemplaire original dactylographié ou une photocopie de qualité équivalente.

Lorsqu'un manuscrit a été préparé sur un appareil de traitement de texte, un disque ou de 3.50 ou de 5.25 pouces devrait dans toute la mesure possible y être joint en précisant son format et le programme utilisé.

Longueur. Les manuscrits ne dovient pas, ordinairement, dépasser 4,000 mots.

Résumé. Un résumé de 150 mots maximum doit accompagner le manuscrit. Il devra donner les buts de l'étude ou des recherches, les procédures de base (sujets de l'étude ou animaux expérimentaux et méthodes d'observation et d'analyse), les principaux résultats (fournir des données spécifiques et indiquer dans la mesure du possible leur importance statistique) ainsi que les principales conclusions. Veuillez mettre en relief les aspects nouveaux et importants de l'étude ou des observations. Dans le résumé, ne citez aucun ouvrage de référence et n'utilisez ni abréviations ni sigles.

Tableaux et figures. Ils doivent être reportés sur des feuillets séparés. Les tableaux doivent être dactylographiée en double interligne. Veuillez soumettre uniquement des figures originales, des dessins à l'encre de Chine ou des photographies tirées sur papier glacé. Les labels qui apparaissent sur les figures doivent être dactylographiés ou gravés ou imprimés de manière professionnelle et non pas écrits à la main.

Photographies. En principe, les matériaux photographiques doivent être remis sous forme de négatifs noir et blanc ou d'épreuves noir et blanc sur papier brillant. Sauf demande expresse les photographies ne seront pas renvoyées.

Unités de mesure. On utilisera de préférence le système métrique. Si d'autres systémes sont utilisés, l'équivalant métrique doit être indiqué.

Références. Les références doivent apparaître à la fin de l'article, en double interligne également. Les documents non publiés ne doivent pas figurer dans les références pas davantage que les documents présentés à des fins de publication mais qui n'ont pas encore été acceptés.

Veuillez numéroter les références dans l'ordre où elles sont mentionnées dans le texte. Identifiez au moyen d'un chiffre arabe placé entre crochets les références dan le texte, les tableaux et les légendes des figures. Les références cités uniquement dans les tableaux ou les légendes des figures doivent être numérotées en fonction de la première fois où il est fait mention du tableau ou de la figure approprié dans le texte. Assurez-vous que les références sont complètes.

Les références citées doivent suivre le format décrit ci-dessous.


-article de journal type (énumérer tous les auteurs):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D. Ottenberger A. Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis crítico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

-auteur d'une société:
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1976:36:119-25.

Livre ou autre monographie

-auteur(s) à titre personnel:
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human bebavior: expérimental, clinical and community studies. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985..

-auteur d'une société:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3e éd. Littleton, Mass. (E.U.): Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

-éditeur, compilateur, président en tant qu'auteur:
5. Medioni J, Boesinger E, éds. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson, 1977.

-chapitre d'un ouvrage:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural change. Dans: Desai AR. éd. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identification. Les auteurs doivent indiquer leur nom complet et leur principal diplôme, le nom des départements et des institutions auxquels le travail doit être attribué, le nom et l'adresse de l'auteur chargé de la correspondance sur le manuscrit ainsi que les sources de financement du travail. Si l'article a déjà été remis auparavant ou est retenu pour une autre publication—sous la même forme ou sous une forme modifiée—on l'indiquera de façon détaillée.

Copies du manuscrit. L'auteur doit conserver un double. Les manuscrits ne seront pas retournés à moins que leurs auteurs n'en fassent expressément la demande. Les épreuves seront envoyées aux auteurs dans des circonstances exceptionnelles seulement.

Les auteurs s'adresseront à:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


Nota para posibles autores

Los editores del Food and Nutrition Bulletin agradecen el envío de contribuciones pertinentes al tema de la revista (vea la política editorial de esta revista en el interior de la tapa anterior). La presentación de un articulo no es garantía de su publicación. la cual dependerá del criterio de los editores en lo que respecta a su pertinencia y calidad. Se ruega a los que deseen colaborar que consulten los números recientes de Food and Nutrition Bulletin para cerciorarse de su contenido y estilo.

Idioma. Las contribuciones podrán remitirse en español, francés o inglés. En caso de utilizar español o francés, el autor deberá incluir. de ser posible, un resumen en inglés.

Formato. Los manuscritos deberán presentarse mecanografiadas, a doble espacio, con márgenes amplios. Solamente se presentarán originales mecanografiados o una fotocopia de los mismos de calidad equivalente. No se admitirán fotocopias en papel fino o satinado.

Si ha preparado cl manuscrito con máquina de tratamiento de textos, agradeceremos nos envíe junto al manuscrito una copia del disco floppy bien en 3 1/2 pulgadas, bien en 51/2 pulgadas, indicando el formato del disco y el programa de tratamiento de textos que ha utilizado.

Longitud. Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras.

Resúmenes. Se adjuntará al manuscrito un resumen que no exceda de 150 palabras. El resumen indicará cl objetivo del estudio o investigación, métodos básicos (individuos, animales seleccionados en experimentos y métodos de observación y análisis), descubrimientos principales (si fuera posible aportando datos específicos y su significado estadístico), y las conclusiones principales. Se enfatizarán los aspectos nuevos e importantes del estudio u observaciones. En el resumen no se citarán referencias ni se usarán abreviaturas ni siglas.

Cuadros y figuras. Todos los cuadros y figuras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros se mecanografiarán a doble espacio. Se presentarán solamente figuras originales. esquemas originales en tinta china o fotografías en papel brillo. Los nombres de las figuras estarán mecanografiados o impresos o rotulados profesionalmente, y no manuscritos.

Fotografías. El material fotográfico se presentará preferentemente en blanco y negro. en negativos o en impresión sobre papel brillante. No se devolverá este material fotográfico a no ser que así lo solicite el remitente.

Unidades de medida. Se utilizará preferentemente el sistema métrico decimal. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.

Referencias. Al final del articulo deberán consignarse las referencias, también en doble espacio. En las referencias no se consignarán documentos que no se hayan publicado. ni aquellos que hayan solicitado su publicación pero que no se han aceptado todavía.

Las referencias se numerarán consecutivamente en el orden en que aparecen en el texto. Las referencias en el texto, en los cuadros y en los epígrafes de figuras se identificarán con números arábigos encerrados entre paréntesis rectangulares. Las referencias que se citan solamente en cuadros o epígrafes de figuras se numerarán de acuerdo con la primera mención que se haga en el texto del cuadro o figura pertinente. Debe asegurarse que se dan todas las referencias.

Las citas hechas a referencias deben adjustarse al formato indicado a continuación.

Referencia a publicación periódica

- artículo modelo de publicación periódica (consignar todos los autores):
1. Alvarez ML, Mikasic D. Ottenberger A. Salazar ME. Características de familias urbanas con lactante desnutrido: un análisis critico. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1979;29:220-30.

-autores corporativos.
2. Committee on Enzymes of the Scandinavian Society for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Physiology. Recommended method for the determination of gammaglutamyltransferase in blood. Stand J Clin Lab Invest 1976;36:119-25.

Referencia a labro u otra monografía

-autor(es) personal(es):
3. Brozek J. Malnutrition and human behavior: experimental. clinical and community studies. Nueva York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.

-autor corporativo:
4. American Medical Association, Department of Drugs. AMA drug evaluations. 3ra. edición. Littleton, Mass.. EE.UU.: Publishing Sciences Group, 1977.

-editor, recopilador, presidente de consejo como autor:
5. Medioni J. Boesinger E, editores. Mécanismes éthologiques de l'évolution. Paris: Masson. 1977.

-capítulo de libro:
6. Barnett HG. Compatibility and compartmentalization in cultural changa. En: Desai AR, editor. Essays on modernization of underdeveloped societies. Bombay: Thacker, 1971.

Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y titulación más alta. nombre del departamento e instituciones a las que se atribuirá el trabajo, el nombre y la dirección del autor responsable de la correspondencia del manuscrito, y fuentes de sustentación del trabajo. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada. se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.

Copias de la contribución. El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia del material que envíe. No se devolverán los manuscritos a no ser que se pida su devolución. Las correcciones de prueba se enviarán a los autores solamente en casos excepcionales.

Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA


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Food and Nutrition Bulletin Subscription Form

Please enter my subscription to the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 12, 1990 (four issues). Please register my standing order to the Food and Nutrition Bulletin from vol. 12 onwards.

[ ] Regular rates:
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Please send me the following back volumes:

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