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IFPRI report

Comparative analyses of the nutritional effectiveness of food subsidies

And other food-related interventions: Conclusions

Eileen T. Kennedy and Harold H. Alderman

Consumption and nutritional status can be improved in a variety of ways. The choice of a particular policy instrument should be dictated in large part by the nature of the malnutrition problem and the goals of the intervention. Planners are frequently ambivalent about what a program should do. This, of course, affects evaluation.

A program is commonly intended to improve growth or decrease mortality, including the outcome of pregnancy. That being the case, critical months for intervention are the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 36 months of an infant's life. The effectiveness of such interventions is affected by both the net amount of calories provided and the duration of participation. Intensive feeding of severely malnourished children may have measurable effects in as little as one month, while other programs may require six months to a year to have any effect. Beyond that, little effect on growth is expected, so the curative phase, as opposed to the preventive phase, is most effectively designed with these timings in mind.

Participants with lower initial levels of nutrition tend to show greater growth. Criteria for selection of participants in both child-feeding and maternal supplement programs have been derived on the basis of field experience and are presented in chapter 3. Focusing on these individuals requires infrastructure that tends to increase costs per recipient but to reduce total program costs.

The most appropriate targeting strategy will depend on the local environment. Geographical targeting as a means of reaching malnourished households can work if it is possible to identify an area with a high proportion of calorie-deficient households. The two subsidy schemes that have been used as case studies in the previous chapter are both geographically targeted to households. The results, however, differ. Geographical targeting worked well in the Philippines because in the villages chosen for treatment the prevalence of families with food deficits and malnourished preschoolers was high. The targeting to low-income areas in Mexico City was less effective in achieving the same result, mainly because the overall prevalence of growth retardation was low. In the Philippines, 1 child in 3 weighed less than 75 per cent of the appropriate weight for age, whereas in Mexico City it was only 1 in 20.

This can be generalized. Geographical targeting is less effective by itself in areas in which the prevalence of malnutrition is low. In such cases, effectiveness can be enhanced with additional screening measures. Adoption of a more sophisticated certification system would increase the costs per recipient, but since there would be fewer participants, the total costs of the program would decrease.

Again Mexico can be taken as an example. In 1977 there were approximately 250,000 recipients of subsidies in Mexico City. If 5 per cent of these are the intended target audience for the program, it can be estimated that approximately 12,500 people need to be served. Even if the costs per recipient were to double because of the additional screening procedures, total costs of the program would still decrease by a factor of 10. Alternatively, the program could serve a greater number of the most nutritionally vulnerable at the same level of expenditure, as shown by the data from Tamil Nadu also. As malnutrition among preschoolers decreases in the project area, the projected cost per child fed increases from 20.76 to 37.82 per cent, but total program costs would decrease because significantly fewer children would need food.

The support institutions in IHN and similar programs, however, are important for more than their ability to screen recipients. The effectiveness of a program may be enhanced when supplemental feeding is part of a package of services. In some programs, such as those in Indonesia and Morocco, education enhances the effectiveness of the project. Other programs, such as those in the Philippines, Tamil Nadu, and Narangwal, involve weight monitoring. The latter two programs also include the delivery of health care.

The monitoring and surveillance of growth that was a large part of the effort in Narangwal involved the creation of an awareness within the family of the health and nutritional status of the child. The project was quite labor-intensive. In the villages with supplementation, preschoolers has a total of 55 service contacts in a year. Similarly, in Tamil Nadu, there was regular contact with the child and family. The importance of this contact can also be generalized. It is unlikely that the selective distribution of food and the whole idea of food as medicine for a child would work without an intensive campaign within a project area. As revealed from a number of programs, from communities as diverse as Morocco and Maharastra, community participation, ranging from initiation to planning and administration of a project, has been shown to contribute to the success of a program. This ensures not only that the design will be appropriate for community conditions but also that information will be disseminated and the services used. Furthermore, outreach may be essential for the acceptance of targeted programs. Such an approach will meet less resistance when the community, through involvement and participation, understands the nutritional justification for the targeting.

While the costs of decreasing malnutrition among preschoolers may be lower if the program can be delivered directly to the child, this is not often possible. Indeed, both from theory and from any intuitive understanding of household dynamics, it is unrealistic to expect food given to a child to be 100 per cent additional. In Mexico and the Philippines, net increments to a child's consumption were found to be in the neighborhood of 10-20 per cent of calories. Beaton and Ghassemi, however, found a number of supplement programs in which the net transfers to children were in the neighborhood of 50 per cent of the total calories [1]. A number of approaches may be used to raise net calorie increments to this level-designing programs to be perceived as snacks and, therefore, less prone to substitution, focusing on food as medicine and on foods considered as children's foods, and using educational programs.

Nevertheless, the dichotomy between child-oriented strategies and family-oriented interventions is an artificial division. Not only is active parental participation and involvement a main element in a successful program; isolation of a malnourished member of a poverty-level family is unrealistic. Accordingly, supplements or subsidies should be large enough to increase consumption by the family, with a portion going to all children, including the target individual. Nor should this consumption be considered leakage.

While the value of food as medicine has been demonstrated in IHN programs and the time frame for response to supplementary feeding has been indicated earlier, subsidies must also serve a preventive function in communities where widespread moderate malnutrition reveals risk of more severe consequences. The design of such an approach may differ from curative approaches. It may rely less on health-care professions, considering that health-care personnel are scarce and expensive, and more on education. Such a program may be most needed in communities where geographical targeting is feasible. Similarly, such a preventive approach may be employed seasonally, concentrating on seasons during which prices are high and employment is low-the present milieu of food-for-work programs.

Price subsidies are used as part of a preventive approach. In Egypt and South Asia, these programs are capable of providing 10-20 per cent of the income of the poor and a sizable effect on the consumption of calories by members of the family. Such a scale is seldom found in supplementary feeding programs and has its rationale in income distribution as well as in nutrition.

One additional point is worth noting. In these analyses, growth was used as an indicator of the effect of a program on children, but growth response based on weight is unlikely in children that are only mildly malnourished; this is probably true regardless of the type of intervention. Preschool feeding centers in which only 15 per cent of the new entrants were malnourished, for example, were found to have no effect on growth [2]. Other indicators of the effectiveness of a program may be more appropriate. Researchers have suggested that an increment in weight is an appropriate measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a program in moderately and severely malnourished children but that changes in linear growth may be a more sensitive measure of effectiveness in mildly malnourished preschoolers. In addition, as preschoolers approach normal growth, they use a higher proportion of incremental calories to increase activity rather than to increase growth [3]. Patterns of activity may be a better yardstick for evaluation of the effectiveness of a program on mildly malnourished children.

In summary, targeting of any type of program- whether a subsidy or a direct intervention-almost always improves its effect on nutrition. Nutrition programs also have other goals, however. Because of the need of governments for political support, interventions often cover a group larger than those that would be defined as nutritionally needy. Although this broad approach might be attractive, it is expensive. Direct delivery of food-as in supplementation schemes and integrated health programs-should be used selectively.



1. Beaton G, Ghassemi H. Supplementary feeding programs for young children in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr (Suppl) 1982;34:864-916.

2. Anderson MA, Austin JE, Wray JD, Zeitlin MF. Nutrition intervention in developing countries. Study 1: Supplementary feeding. Cambridge, Mass, USA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, 1981.

3. Beaton G. Evaluation of nutrition interventions: methodologic considerations. Am J Clin Nutr (Suppl) 1982; 35: 1280-89.


Book reviews and notices

Healthy nutrition: Preventing nutrition-related diseases in Europe. WHO Regional Publication, European Series, No. 24. Available from the WHO Regional Office, 8, Scherfigsvej, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

This slim paperback book provides epidemiological evidence of the relationship between diet and disease. It also presents nutrient goals that are considered to be ideal for the prevention of chronic diseases, based on previous WHO documents and the recommendations of various national committees. These are seen as common to all of the countries, but the dietary patterns to realize them will differ markedly.

It is estimated that, in Europe as a whole, about half of the deaths of men and women below the age of 65 years result from diseases to which diet makes an important contribution. Nutrition-related disease in Europe such as coronary heart disease, stroke, many kinds of cancer, oral disease, anaemia, goitre, cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes, gallstones, obesity, high blood pressure, and bone disease in the elderly have a huge effect on medical services. The differences in this regard among the various regions of Europe are described.

Provided each country develops a coherent and sustained nutrition policy, agricultural and food manufacturing practices can alter satisfactorily without economic loss. However, nutrition and health education in many forms will be required. The book provides a sound basis for informing policy-makers, health educators, and the public about the dietary habits that are most conducive to health.

Food subsidies in developing countries: Costs, benefits, and policy options. Edited by Per Pinstrup-Andersen. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA. 374 pages. US$39.50.

This book summarizes, synthesizes, and interprets experience and findings from analyses of food subsidy programmes in various countries. Taken together, the individually authored chapters of the first half of the book provide a summary of available evidence on the effects of consumer-oriented food subsidies with emphasis on the costs and benefits and offers a synthesis across countries of the various effects of food subsidies. Implications for the agricultural sector are discussed along with the political considerations and lessons for programme and policy implications.

In the second half of the book, chapters discuss the results of food subsidies in specific countries, including Egypt, the Philippines, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Mexico, and Zambia. The final two chapters deal with micro- and macro-economic policy implications, respectively, of consumer oriented food subsidies. In the latter the editor of the volume concludes: "Consumer food subsidies are rarely, if ever, the most efficient measure to deal with long-term structural problems in the economy. On the contrary, they may contribute to such problems." However, he does state that the evidence presented in the book indicates that consumer food subsidies can be very effective in reducing the insecurity of access to foods at the household level. Ways of obtaining cost-effectiveness are discussed.

This book is by far the most comprehensive and authoritative treatment of food subsidies available. Its usefulness is enhanced by 18 pages of references and a helpful index.

Coping with uncertainty in food supply. Edited by I. de Garine and G. A. Harrison. Oxford University Press, New York, 1988. 483 pages. US$98.00.

This volume is based on a conference organized in 1982 by the Regional Commission for Europe of the International Commission on the Anthropology of Food (ICAF) of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. Most of the individually authored chapters deal with food security fluctuations in individual countries.

In addition to the country studies, a number of integrating chapters reviewing specific topics are of interest. These include the opening chapter on variations in the food supply for wild primates, seasonality and human population biology, and food as a function of seasonal environment and social history. The chapter "Food, Seasonality, and Human Evolution," by W. A. Stini, explains the adaptive mechanisms that enable human populations to cope with marked variations in food availability and intake.

In a final chapter, "Discussion and Conclusion," the editors state: "When uncertainty in food supply is, or becomes permanent, there is no room for optimism: human populations have to pay a heavy price to malnutrition and its sequels, morbidity and mortality. Their very biological existence is endangered. The hardships linked to uncontrolled industrialization, such as the degradation of the environment, monetarization, unfair economic competitions for the most backward groups, are external factors tending to become the daily fare of a sizable part of mankind."

The preceding chapters provide extensive examples, and confirm that many countries are still not giving a high priority to food security.

It is unfortunate that this interesting book is priced out of reach for most individuals, but libraries used by nutritionists should be encouraged to purchase it.

Transition to vegetarianism: An evolutionary step. Rudolph Ballentine. The Himalayan International Institute, Honesdale, Pa., USA, 1987.

Acceptance of the concept that a properly selected vegetarian diet can be as healthful as one that contains meat and other animal products is relatively recent, and the evidence that it may actually improve health is even more so. This well written book provides reliable guidance to those who for environmental or health reasons would like to adopt a more vegetarian diet.


UNU projects on food and nutrition

In the Cambridge project office:

Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw, Project Director for Food and Nutrition, and Editor, Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Ms. Edwina Murray, Assistant Editor, Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Mrs. Sarah Jeffries, Editorial Consultant, Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Ms. Rebecca Chamberlain, Fellowship Officer

At the UNU Centre, Tokyo:
Dr. Abraham Besrat, Training and Fellowship Officer

Part time.

Associated institutions

CENTRAL FOOD TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CFTRI). Mysore 570013, India. Tel. 22298. Cable: UNVERCENT MYSORE. Telex: 0846-241 FTRI IN. Co-ordinator: Dr. B. L. Amla


FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF IFE. Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Tel. 2290 to 2299. Co-ordinator: Dr. J. O. Adejuwon

INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY (IATA). Jaime Roig 11, Valencia 10, Spain. Tel. 36908-00. Cable: IATA Valencia 10, Spain. Co-ordinator: Dr. Salvador Barber

INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION, MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY (INMU). Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Tel. 282-6435. Coordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi

INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY (INTA). University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Tel. 214105, 214030. Cable: INTA CHILE. Co-ordinator: Dr. Jose Riumallo

INSTITUTE OF NUTRITION OF CENTRAL AMERICA AND PANAMA (INCAP). Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Tel. 43762. Cable: INCAP GUATEMALA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Maarten D. C. Immink.

THE INTERNATIONAL FOOD AND NUTRITION POLICY AND PLANNING PROGRAM, MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND HARVARD SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH (IFNP). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20A-201, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 2537617. Cable: MIT CAM. Telex: 92-1473 MIT CAM. Co-ordinator: Dr. William M. Rand

KOREA ADVANCED INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (KAIST). P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Tel. (967) 8801. Cable: KISTROK. Telex: KISTROK K 27380. Co-ordinator: Dr. Tai-Wan Kwon

LONDON SCHOOL OF HYGIENE AND TROPICAL MEDICINE (LSHTM). Keppel Street (Gower Street), London WC1E 7HT, UK. Tel. 01-636 8636. Co-ordinator: Dr. Philip Payne

NATIONAL FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE (NFRI). 2-1-2 Kannondai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken 300-21, Japan. Tel. 02975-6-8011. Co-ordinator: Dr. Keiji Umeda

NETHERLANDS INTERNATIONAL NUTRITION INSTITUTE (NINI). Lawickse Allee 11, P.O. Box 88, 6700 AB, Wageningen, Netherlands. Tel. (08370) 19040. Co-ordinator: Dr. Joseph Hautvast

THE NUTRITION CENTER OF THE PHILIPPINES (NCP). Nutrition Center of the Philippines Bldg., South Super Highway, Nichols Interchange, Makati, Metro Manila 3116, Philippines. Tel. 85-30-71 to -79. Cable: NUTRICEN MANILA. Coordinator: Dr. Mercedes de Solon

UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE (UVC). Apartado Aéreo 20353, Cali, Colombia. Co-ordinator: Dr. Luis Fajardo

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI (UNK). Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Kabete Campus, P.O. Box 41670, Nairobi, Kenya. Co-ordinator: Dr. A. A. Kielmann

UNIVERSITY OF SAO PAULO (USP). School of Public Health, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo, 715, Sao Paulo, S.P., Brazil. Coordinator: Dr. Ruy Laurenti

UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES (UWI). St Augustine Campus: Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science. St. Augustine, Trinidad. Tel. 662-7171. Cable: STOMATA PORT OF SPAIN. Resident Coordinator: Dr. Lloyd Rankine. Mona Campus: Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Tel. 927-6661. Cable: UNIVERS JAMAICA. Contact: Dr. Michael Golden


Other co-operating organizations

Through the British Council:

Agricultural Research Council, Food Research Institute, Norwich, UK
Department of Food Science, University of Reading, UK
Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Tropical Development and Research Institute (TDRI), London, UK
University of Reading, Reading, UK (Dr. Harry Nursten)

Through CFTRI:
National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, India (Dr. M. Mohanram)

Through IATA:
Instituto de Nutrición, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicos de España, Madrid, Spain (Dr. Gregorio Varela)

Through IFNP:
Department of Anthropology, Nutrition, and Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., USA (Dr. Billie R. DeWalt)
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA (Dr. Peter Pellett)
Department of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.. USA (Dr. M. C. Nesheim)
Departments of Nutrition and Medical Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., USA (Dr. Gretel Pelto)
School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Md., USA (Dr. Kenneth Brown)
School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif., USA (Dr. Snehendu B. Kar)
Tufts University School of Nutrition. Medford. Mass. (Dr. Stanley N. Gershoff). and Division of Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine. Boston, Mass., USA (Dr. Gerald T. Keusch)

Through INCAP:
Central American Institute of Corporation Management (INCAE), Costa Rica (Dr. John C. Ickis)
Instituto Centroamericano de Investigación v Tecnología Industrial (ICAITI), Guatemala City, Guatemala (Dr. Carlos Rolz)

Through KAIST:
Korea University, Food Research Center, College of Agriculture, Seoul, Republic of Korea (Dr. Cherl-Ho Lee)
Korea University. Korea Nutrition Research Institute, Seoul. Republic of Korea (Dr. Jin Soon Ju)

Through NCP:
Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Manila. Philippines
University of the Philippines at Los Baños. Los Baños, Philippines

Through NFRI:
Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan

Through NINI:
Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands (Dr. P. Middelburg)
Department of Tropical Nutrition, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands (Prof. J. Kusin)
Division for Nutrition and Food Research, TNO, Zeist, Netherlands (Prof. B. Krol)
Food Research Institute, Norwich, UK (Dr. David Southgate)
International Course in Food Science and Nutrition (ICFSN), Wageningen, Netherlands (Dr. M. L. J. Mertens)
Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC), The Hague, Netherlands (Dr. C. W. Klugkist)

Through USP:
State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil

Through UWI:
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI), Kingston, Jamaica (Dr. A. W. Patterson)

Direct co-operative relationship:
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, D.C., USA (Dr. Per Pinstrup-Andersen)

International scientific unions:
International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST)
International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS)

The United Nations system:
The UNU projects on food and nutrition co-operate with the appropriate units or divisions of the following organizations with which the University has memoranda of understanding:
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
World Food Programme (WEP)
World Health Organization (WHO)

The University is represented on the Sub-committee on Nutrition (SCN) of the United Nations Administrative Committee on Co-ordination.


Research networks

Chronic energy deficiency

International Dietary Energy Consultative Group (IDECG). Secretariat: Nestlé Foundation, 4 Place de la Gare, Lausanne, Switzerland. Executive Secretary: Dr. Beat Schürch. Tel. 021-20 33 51. Telex: 454299 TXC CH. Fax: (Nestle Foundation) 41 2 120 7524. Executive committee: Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw, Chairman; Dr. Joseph Hautvast, Dr. Beat Schürch

Division of Nutrition, National Institute of Nutrition, Calle Vasco de Quiroga No. 15 Col. y Deleg. Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Principal investigator: Dr. Hector Bourges
Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Principal investigator: Dr. Teshome Demeke
Institute of Health, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, 10 Tian Tan Xili, Beijing, China. Principal investigator: Dr. Chen Xue-cun
Instituto de Nutrición, y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. José Riumallo
National Institute of Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, Rome Italy. Principal investigator: Dr. Anna Ferro-Luzzi
Nutrition Research and Development Centre, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi
Nutrition Research Centre, St. John's Medical College. Bangalore 560 034, India. Principal investigator: Dr. Prakash S. Shetty
Universidad del Valle, Departmento de Pediatria, Facultad de Medicina, Apartado Aéreo 2188, Cali, Colombia. Principal investigator: Dr. Julio C. Reina
University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Principal investigator: Dr. Sally McGregor

Iron-deficiency anaemia

Beijing Medical College-UNICEF, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene. Beijing, China. Principal investigator: Dr. Shiu-yun Liu
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU), Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Tomas Walter
Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Dr. Benjamin Torún
Institute of Public Health, Rockefellerova 7, Zagreb, Yugoslavia. Principal investigator: Dr. Ratko Buzina.
National Institute of Hygiene, Yungan Hsi-lee, Chien Kuo Men-wai, Beijing, China. Principal investigator: Dr. Chen-ting Chin
National Research Centre, National Academy of Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Sohair Salem
National Institute of Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Mohammed A. Hussein
Nutrition Research and Development Centre, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi
Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (IVIC), Apartado 1827, Caracas, Venezuela. Principal investigator: Dr. Miguel Layrisse

Nutrition and primary health care

Baluchistan Integrated Programme Area Directorate, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Co-investigators: Farhat Sultana and Pamela Hunte
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI). P.O. Box 140, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Principal investigator: Dr. Renee Dankerlin
Centre for Social Research and Chancellor College, University of Malawi, Box 27X, Zomba, Malawi. Principal investigator: Dr. Christine Lamba
International Foster Parents Plan, Inc., 804 Quaker Lane, East Greenwich, R.I., USA. Dr. Victor Lara
Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road. Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Yongyout Kachonpadunkitti
Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) (for Central America), P.O. Box 1188, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Lic. Elena Hurtado
Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. María de Luz Alvarez
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Management Science, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea. Principal investigator: Dr. Kong-Kyun Ro
Save the Children Fund. CPO Box 992, Kathmandu, Nepal. Principal investigator: Dr. Vijaya L. Shrestha
Society for Economic and Social Studies, B-1, 2nd Floor LSC, J Block, Saket, New Delhi 110 017, India. Principal investigator: Dr. D. Raghunandan
UNICEF-Haiti, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Principal investigator: Dr. María D. Alvarez
UN/FAO World Food Programme, Room F, 747 Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Dr. Jens H. Schulthes, Senior Programme Officer, Project Management Division
Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia. Professors María
E. Romero and Adela Morales de Look
University of Ife, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Principal investigator: Dr. Simi Afonia
University of Lubumbashi, Zaire (Shaba Province). Principal investigator: Ngokwey Ndolamb
University of Nairobi, Institute of African Studies, Nairobi. Kenya. Principal investigator: Dr. David O. Nyamwaya
World Bank, 1818 H St., NW, Washington, D.C., USA. Dr. Michael Cernea, Sociology Advisor

Brazil: Dra. Clarice Mota, Instituto de Filosofia e Ciências Sociais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Largo de Sao Francisco, 1/4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Tel. (021) 239-1407
Brazil: Maria Cecília de Sousa Minayo, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fudação Oswaldo Cruz-Brasil, Rua General Cristovão Barcelo, 24/802 Laranjeiras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. CEP: 22251. Tel. (021) 290-0387
Ecuador: Jasmina Estupinan, Psiconsult, Apdo. Postal 148C, Batan 124 y Eloy Alfaro, Quito, Ecuador
Somalia: Asha Mohamud, Deputy Director, FH/FP Unit, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 1750, Mogadisho, Somalia. Tel. 81977


International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS)

Secretariat: Bldg. 20A-226, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 253-8004. Telex: 650 2688345. Fax: (+1 overseas) 617 491-6266
Ms. Roselyn Romberg. Executive Secretary
Dr. John Klensin, Information Systems Specialist
Executive Committee: Dr. Vernon Young, Chairman; Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Dr. Alex Campbell
Committee on Users and Needs: Dr. Gaurth Hansen, Chairman
Committee on Data Quality: Dr. David Southgate. Chairman
Committee on Terminology and Nomenclature: Dr. Stewart Truswell, Chairman
Committee on Information Systems: Dr. John Klensin, Chairman


Regional liaison groups:

AFROFOODS. Co-ordinator: Mr. Claver R. Temalilwa, Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
ASIAFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
EUROFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Clive West, Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands
LATINFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Guatemala City, Guatemala
MEDIFOODS. Co-ordinator: Dr. Flaminio Fidanza, Instituto di Scienza dell' Alimentazione, Universitá degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy
NOAFOODS Co-ordinator: Dr. Alex Campbell, Ottawa, Ontario. Canada
NORDICFOODS. Co-ordinator Dr. Ake Bruce, Swedish National Food Administration, Uppsala. Sweden
OCEANIAFOODS (for the Oceania region) and MENAFOODS (for the Middle East and North Africa) are being organized.


Note for contributors

The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns (see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the front cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication-which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality. Contributors should review recent issues of the Bulletin for content and style.

Language. Contributions may be in English, French, or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used, the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.

Format. Contributions should be typed, double spaced, with ample margins.

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words.

Tables and figures. Any tables and figures should be on separate sheets of paper. Figures should be clearly and accurately drawn and clearly labelled.

Photographs. Ideally photographic materials should be submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not be returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement. Preferably measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article, numbered in the order of their appearance in the article, also double-spaced. A reference to a book or other separately published work should include full indication of the name(s) of the author(s), title of the work, and publisher and place and year of publication. A reference to an article in a book should include the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, title of the article, editor(s) of the book and title of the book, publisher and place and year of publication. and the page numbers of the article. A reference to an article in a journal should include the author(s), title of the article, name of journal, volume and issue number and date, and page numbers of the article. Unpublished material should not be listed in the references.

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and official affiliation. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere-in the same or modified form-a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts will not be returned unless specifically requested.

Contributions should be addressed to:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
9 Bow Street
Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

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