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News and notes

IUNS notes
Training programmes and courses
Audio-visual materials
New books

IUNS notes

The Council of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences met at the Royal Society in London on 12 March 1984 and reviewed, among other matters, the work of the many IUNS committees. They considered applications for financial assistance for the work of 19 committees and agreed to make small grants of seed money to the committees on food standards, nutritional anthropology, nutritional consequences of developmental programmes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, obesity and diabetes, nutrition and cancer, nutrition education and training in schools of food science and technology, and nutrition education for nurses and auxiliary health workers. They made suggestions about other financial assistance for the committees on the evaluation of protein foods, human protein-energy requirements, nutrition and physical performance, nutrition in primary health care, nutrition education of the public, nutrition and immunity, trace elements in human nutrition, functional consequences of vitamin deficiencies, advanced degrees in nutrition science, and nutrition of pigs and for a working group on household nutrition- appropriate technology. Many of these activities will lead to the publication of reports and monographs. The Council also reviewed the development of the plans for the Thirteenth International Congress of Nutrition.

The Council held a workshop on nutrition education for medical students and practitioners at the Royal College of Physicians {London) on 13 March 1984. Most of the members of the IUNS Council, the chairmen of the IUNS committees on nutrition education and training in medical schools and on clinical nutrition, Sir Douglas Black, past president of the Royal College of Physicians, and Dr. A. Pradilla, head of the Nutrition Unit of WHO, contributed short papers. Professors J. C. Waterlow and D. J. Naismith of London University, and Dr. Derek Shrimpton, Director General of the British Nutrition Foundation, made short contributions during part of the proceedings. The workshop ended with a discussion, chaired by Professor M. K. Gabr, the president-elect of IUNS, which concentrated on motivation of students and medical practitioners to study nutrition, what should be taught, how it should be taught (in separate departments of nutrition, or integrated throughout the whole of medical education), who should teach (it was generally agreed that clinical nutrition should be taught only by medically qualified practitioners), how teachers should be trained, and what their relationships with those in other health professions should be. The proceedings of the workshop are being prepared for publication.

Training programmes and courses

Undergraduate nutrition training in most developing countries is most often linked to schools for dieticians (nutritionists). Students have been prepared to serve as hospital dieticians and, lately, to work in the area of public health. Courses of study typically run over a three- or four year period and, in general, lack sound training in basic as well as applied nutrition. Students in the socio-economic, agricultural, and medical fields are unaware or have very little knowledge of the nutrition problems of their region or country. The inter-professional and multidisciplinary aspects of nutrition are often forgotten, and the subject is always related to health.

Advanced training of nutritionists from developing countries has been carried out in the developed world or in a few selected institutions of the developing countries with infrastructure and support similar to those in the industrialized countries. The creation, through the United Nations University, of a network of institutions, several of them in the developing world, has helped to broaden the opportunities for nutrition training.

Graduate nutrition-training programme in Ribeirão Prêto, Brazil: For the past 15 years graduate nutrition training has been offered under the auspices of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, located in Ribeirão Prêto. The programme is open to professionals who are university graduates. Six to eight students from different areas are selected each year (the programme is by principle inter-professional and multidisciplinary). The course lasts for one year, and the students devote full time to it. The language of instruction is Portuguese.

Small courses on statistics, bibliography research, and scientific and research methodology are offered. Each student is expected to prepare and develop a research project during the year. The project is supposed to be carried out in the area of nutrition linked to the professional training of the student (e.g., nutrition and agriculture, nutrition and economics, nutrition and medicine). Each student has a professor on the faculty of the university as an adviser.

The programme has been attended by students from all over Brazil and a few from other parts of Latin America. It is open to professionals from Spanish-speaking countries who have no problems with the Portuguese language. Professionals from the Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa are also eligible to apply. Unfortunately, no fellowships are available to foreign students through the programme itself, but it is believed that prospective students might obtain fellowships through their respective governments or through international agencies (WHO, PAHO, UNU, FAO, etc.).

The next course will begin in March 1985. Interested persons should write to Dr. J. E. Dutra de Oliveira, Faculdade de Medicina, 14.100 Ribeirão Prêto, São Paulo, Brazil.

The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in Hyderabad, India, was the first institute in Asia to offer regular training programmes in human nutrition to teachers in medical colleges and public health personnel in nutrition at various levels. These programmes are supported by WHO, UNICEF, and ICMR.

Over 400 persons from 20 South-East Asian countries have undergone training in the theory and practice of nutrition, including exposure to laboratory, clinical, and community situations. The Institute has also been conducting comprehensive orientation courses in human nutrition for teachers in agricultural universities in collaboration with the Indian Council for Agricultural Research. This course is meant for teachers in the faculties of agriculture, veterinary science, home science, and food technology.

The main objectives of the NIN courses are to

- provide orientation in the latest concepts and techniques in nutrition;
- improve skills relating to teaching, training, and research in nutrition;
- create a corps of trained workers who can assume leadership and further the cause of nutrition consultancy and nutrition-oriented health care delivery.

A recent review indicated that participants trained at NIN are occupying strategic teaching positions in over 70 medical institutions and 12 agricultural universities. This advanced training has helped to build a cadre of persons well trained in nutrition for manning nutrition programmes in India and other South-East Asian countries. With few exceptions, all participants are actively engaged in nutrition and health-related activities.

For further information, contact M. Mohanram and V. Ramadasmurthy, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad- 500 007, India.

A diploma in Food Resources Related to Community Development is offered by the Department of Food Science and Nutrition at Queen Elizabeth College, University of London. It has been designed to provide an introduction to the issues involved in up-grading nutritional status and the methods of overcoming the problems in helping communities to develop their own resources. Today, the need is increasingly recognized for an integrated approach to community development, bringing together the agricultural extension services, community health programmes, the primary education network, functional literacy campaigns for adults, and the development of locally based small-scale industries.

The course is held at Queen Elizabeth College and extends over one academic year. It is designed primarily for experienced women and men from overseas who are, or hope to be, engaged in administration and training in agencies and organizations concerned with community development, food production, home economics, health, nutrition, social welfare, and adult education. Practising field workers, such as community workers, agricultural extension officers, and medical and nutrition aides, and teachers who wish to extend their duties to adult education and social welfare are especially welcomed.

For complete descriptions of the course and for information on requirements for admission and how to apply, write to Dr. Jerry Jones, Course Supervisor, Department of Food Science, Queen Elizabeth College, Campden Hill Road, London W8 7AH, UK.

An advanced training programme in food and nutrition has been organized by the Institute of Nutrition and the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, under the direction of Professor Aree Valyasevi. The Institute of Nutrition is a United Nations University Associated Institution. This programme provides individualized courses of study incorporating the areas of clinical nutrition, community nutrition, experimental nutrition, and nutritional biochemistry.

Admission requirements:

- M.S., M.D., or Ph.D. (candidates with a B.Sc. degree and extensive experience in nutrition may be admitted under special consideration).
- All candidates must be proficient in English.
Number admitted: Three to five participants.
Language of instruction: English.

Duration of the course: Six to twelve months. Diploma awarded: Certificate of attendance.

For further information, write to Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Institute of Nutrition, c/o Research Center, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama IV Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

A short-term training in community nutrition practicum is also being offered at the Institute of Nutrition Research Center in Bangkok under the same sponsorship and direction.

Admission requirement: Several years of professional experience in the area of food and nutrition. Language of instruction: English. Number admitted: Three to five participants. Duration of the course: Two months (January-February). Diploma awarded: Certificate of completion.

For further information, write to Dr. Valyasevi at the address above.

Audio-visual materials

Malnutrition in an Urban Environment, a slide teaching set prepared by the Institute of Public Health, University of the Philippines, the Nutrition Center of the Philippines, and TALC (Foundation for Teaching Aids at Low Cost), is available from the Institute of Child Health, London.

The slides illustrate the nutritional condition of the small children belonging to two families living in an urban slum in South-East Asia. Perhaps the most useful teaching slides from this set are those that show the children, who at first sight look healthy, alongside well-nourished children of the same age. Pictures and descriptions of family occupations and living conditions clearly demonstrate that poverty is the primary cause of the under-nutrition. Diets are poor, bulky, and monotonous, and environmental hygiene appalling. The floor space occupied by one family is only enough for all of them to lie down at night. While health workers can do little to improve incomes, there are other factors contributing to the children's poor nutritional status that might be alleviated - notably large, unplanned families, little immunization, poor utilization of nearby health facilities, and bottle-feeding. The set ends with pictures of severe malnutrition and a funeral to show what is, all too frequently, the final outcome for children like these.

The slides, which are accompanied by a written and taped narrative, would be useful in many teaching situations, particularly in South-East Asia. With adaptation of the text, they might be used in development education.

The price for the 24 slides and text is £5; with tape, £13; or only £1.80 in low-cost self-mounting form. Information on price of mounted sets with or without pre-recorded tape and on other sets available will be sent on request. Write to Barbara Harvey, Box 49, St. Albans, AL1 4AX, UK.

Film on food and nutrition needs of toddlers and preschool children: Specific information for parents about the food habits and requirements for their toddlers is not readily available. A recent nutrition education film entitled "No Better Gift," produced by the Society for Nutrition Education, should help to fill this void. The film discusses the appetites, fickle preferences, and growth of toddlers and emphasizes how to satisfy the nutrient requirements of children at a time when their needs for autonomy conflict with their parents' desire to give them a balanced diet. The narrative is carefully edited, and the film is accompanied by both a viewer's and an instructor's manual to help clarify areas of special concern. It can be used to advantage by parents, day-care providers, educators, nutritionists, nurses, or physicians in a wide variety of contexts, such as day-care centres, family care programmes, maternal and child health programmes, or early childhood education programmes.

"No Better Gift" is in colour and runs for 18 minutes; it is available on 16 mm film and on 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch video cassette. It may be obtained from the Society for Nutrition Education, 1736 Franklin St., Oakland, Calif., USA- telephone (415) 444-7133.


1985 nutrition education conference in Los Angeles: The Society for Nutrition Education will hold its eighteenth annual meeting 7-10 July 1985 at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California, USA. The conference, which is expected to draw approximately 1,000 nutrition and health educators, will feature skills workshops, presentations of research papers, screenings of audio-visuals, and exhibits of educational materials, including computer software. Each of the four days of the meeting will begin with a plenary session. Speakers will be drawn from industry, government, academia, and health-care organizations nationwide. The Society for Nutrition Education is a non-profit, member-supported professional association dedicated to promoting nutritional well-being through research, education, and communication of scientifically sound food and nutrition information.

Nutrition Education- The State of the Art: Review and Analysis of the Literature, by Ronald C. Israel and Joanne P. Nestor Tighe (Unesco Nutrition Education Series, no. 7). The materials in this review were selected to represent recent trends and progress in the field and are arranged according to topics- policy issues, conceptual approaches, baseline information and ethnographies, case studies, exemplary materials, and evaluation. It is available at no cost from the Division of Science and Technical Education, Unesco, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France.

New books available free to interested persons in developing countries from the UNU Cambridge Programme Office:

Protein-Energy Requirement Studies in Developing Countries: Results of International Research, edited by W. R. Rand, R. Uauy, and N. S. Scrimshaw (Food and Nutrition Bulletin Supplement 10), The United Nations University, Tokyo, 1984.

Methods for the Evaluation of the Impact of Food and Nutrition Programmes, edited by D. E. Sahn, R. Lockwood, and N. S. Scrimshaw (Food and Nutrition Bulletin Supplement 8), The United Nations University, Tokyo, 1984.

New books

Postharvest Biotechnology of Vegetables. Vol. 1, D. K. Salunkhe. Vol. 2, B. B. Desai. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., USA. ISBN 0-8493-6123-0 and 0-8493-6124-9. Prepub. price US$84 in USA, US$97 outside USA. Release June 1984.

Common Diseases of Small Grain Cereals. F. J. Zillinsky. CIMMYT. 150 pp., paperback. US$18.75. Available from Agribookstore, IADS Operations, Arlington, Va., USA.

Publications on International Agricultural Research and Development: A Catalogue. GTZ, CGIAR, IRRI. ISBN 3-88085-206-5. 386 pp., paperback. US$6.50. Available from Agribookstore, IADS Operations, Arlington, Va., USA.

Adoption, Spread, and Production Impact of Modern Rice Varieties in Asia. R. W. Herdt and C. Capule. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PO Box 933, Manila, Philippines. ISBN 971-104-083-2. 54 pp., paperback.

Potential Productivity of Field Crops under Different

Environments. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PO Box 933, Manila, Philippines. ISBN 971-104114-6. 526 pp., paperback.

Field Problems of Tropical Rice, rev. ed. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, PO Box 933, Manila Philippines, 1983. ISBN 971-104-080-8. 172 pp., paperback.

Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products. Edited by R. E. Martin, G. J. Flick, and C. E. Hebard. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., USA, 1982. ISBN 0-87055-408-5. 475 pp. US$49.50.

Safety of Foods, 2nd ed. Edited by H. D. Graham. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., USA, 1976. ISBN 0-87055-209-0. 491 pp. US$47.

Tropical Root Crops: Postharvest Physiology and Processing. Edited by I. Uritani and E. D. Reyes. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, 1984. ISBN 4-76226358-3. 328 pp., paperback.

Proceedings of Grain Legumes Workshop. Edited by M. M. El-Fouly. National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, in collaboration with the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), 1984. 311 pp., paperback. Not for sale; order from National Research Centre, El-Tahir St., Cairo-Dokki, Egypt.

Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy: Eating for Two? Edited by J. Dobbing. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series, vol. 1. Academic Press, London and New York, 1981. ISBN 0-12-218850-0 195 pp., hardcover.

Acute Diarrhea: Its Nutritional Consequences in Children Edited by J. E. Bellanti. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, vol. 2. Raven Press, New York, 1983. ISBN 0-89004-991-2. 223 pp., hardcover.

Nutritional Adaptation of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Newborn. Edited by N. Kretchmer and A. Minkowski. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, vol. 3. Raven Press, New York, 1983. ISBN 0-89004-905-X. 230 pp., hardcover.

Iron Nutrition in Infancy and Childhood. Edited by A. Stekel. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, vol. 4. Raven Press, New York, 1982. ISBN 0-89004-435-X. 204 pp., hardcover.

Chronic Diarrhea in Children. Edited by E. Lebenthal. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, vol. 6. Raven Press, New York, 1984. ISBN 0-89004-319-1. 568 pp., hardcover.

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