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UNU sub-programme on food, nutrition, and poverty


Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP)
Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Tel. 43762. Cable: INCAP GUATEMALA Co-ordinator: Dr. Victor Valverde.

The Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP)
Nutrition Center of the Philippines Bldg., South Super Highway, Nichols Interchange, Makati, Metro Manila 3116, Philippines. Tel. 85-30-71 to 79. Cable: NUTRICEN MANILA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Mercedes de Solon.

Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)
Mysore 570013, India. Tel. 22298. Cable: UNVERCENT MYSORE. Telex: 0846-241 FTRI IN. Co-ordinator: Dr. B. L. Amia.

The International Food and Nutrition Policy end Planning Pro. gram, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard School of Public Health (IFNP)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20A-201, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. Tel. (6171 253-7617. Cable: MITUNATUNIV CAMBRIDGE. Telex: 92-1473 MIT CAM. Co-ordinator:

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana (DNFS)
P.O. Box 134,Legon, Ghana. Cable: UNIVERSITY LEGON. Coordinator: Dr. R. Orraca-Tetteh.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU)
Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Tel. 2826435. Co-ordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi.

National Food Research Institute (NFRI)
2-1-2 Kanondai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken 300-21, Japan. Tel. 02975-6-8011. Co-ordinator: Dr. Keiji Umeda.

Universidad del Valle (UVC)
Apartado Aéreo 20353, Call, Colombia. Co-ordinator: Dr. Luis Fajardo.

University of the West Indies (UWI)
St. Augustine Campus: Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Tel. 662-7171. Cable: STOMATA PORT OF SPAIN. Resident Co-ordinator: Dr. Lloyd Rankine. Mona Campus: Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Tel. 927-6661. Cable: UNIVERS JAMAICA. Contact: Dr. Alan Jackson.

Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA)
University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Tel. 214105,
214030. Cable: INTA CHILE. Co-ordinator: Dr. Ricardo Uauy.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Keppel Street (Gower Street), London WC 1E 7HT, England. Tel. 01-636 8636. Co-ordinator: Dr. Philip Payne.

Netherlands International Nutrition Institute (NINI)
Lawickse Allee 11, P.O. Box 88, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Tel, (08370) 19040. Co-ordinator: Dr. Joseph Hautvast.

Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Jaime Roig 11, Valencia 10, Spain. Tel. 369-08-00. Cable: IATA Valencia 10, Spain. Director: Dr. Enrique Tortosa.

The UNU Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty also co-operates with the following institution and organizations.

Through IFNP:

Department of Nutrition, Cornell University, USA
Departments of Nutrition and Medical Anthropology, University of Connecticut, USA
Divisions of Geographic Medicine and Nutrition, Tufts University, USA
Department of Communications, Stanford University, USA
School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, USA
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, USA

Through the British Council
In the United Kingdom:

Tropical Products Institute (TPI), London
Dunn Laboratories, Cambridge
Department of Food Science, University of Reading, Reading
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London
Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford

Through NCP:
University of the Philippines at Los Banos, Philippines

Through NFRI:
Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan

Through NINI:
International Course in Food Science and Nutrition (ICFSN), Wageningen, The Netherlands (Dr. M.L.J. Mertens)
Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University Wageningen, The Netherlands (Dr. P. Middelburg)
Department of Tropical Nutrition, Royal Tropical Institute Amsterdam, The Netherlands (Prof. J. Kusin)
Division for Nutrition and Food Research, TNO Zeist, The Netherlands (Prof. B. Krol)
Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC). The Hague, The Netherlands (Dr. C.W. Klugkist)

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

International Scientific Unions
International Union of Food Science and Technology (lUFoST) International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS)

In the United Nations system, the UNU Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty co-operates with the appropriate units or divisions of the following organizations with which the University has memoranda of understanding.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
World Health Organization (WHO)
The University is represented on the Administrative Committee on Coordination-Sub-committee on Nutrition.


Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Abraham Stekel.

Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (IVIC), Apartado 1827, Caracas Venezuela. Principal investigator: Dr. Miguel Layrisse.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU), Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama Vl Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi.

Maternal and Child Health Services, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Loufti M. El-Sayyad.

Nutrition Research and Development Centre, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi.

Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama ((INCAP),), Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Dr. Benjamin Torún.

National Research Center, National Academy of Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Sohair Salem.

National Institute of Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Mohammed A. Hussein,

Biomedical Research Center for Infectious Disease, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Aziz El Kholy.


Division of Nutrition, National Institute of Nutrition, Calle Vasco de Ouiroga No. 15 Col. V Deleg. Tialpan, 14,000 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Principal investigator: Dr. Hector Bourges.


Vice-Rector: Dr. Miguel Urrutia

Staff of the Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition and Poverty
Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw, Programme Director*
Dr. H. A. B. Parpia, Senior Programme Officer
Mrs. Audrey Yuse, Administrative Assistant Miss Jane Dittrich, Editorial Assistant
Mrs. Elsie Kimi Buma, Secretary*
Ms. Noriko Hasegawa, Secretary Ms. Karen Bushold, Administrative Secretary*
Mrs. Margaret Mubirumusoke, Information Specialist*

*Part-time in the Cambridge office of the sub-programme:
20A-201, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 253-7617. Cable: MIT CAM. Telex: 92-1473 MIT CAM.


The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns, Submission of an article does not guarantee publication-which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality.

Language. Contributions may be in English, French, or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used, the author should submit an Abstract in English if possible.

Format. Contributions should be typed, double-spaced, preferably on A4 (210 x 297 mm) or American lettersize (8 1/2 x 11 in.) paper with margins of at least 2.5 - 3 cm (1 - 1 1/4 in.) on each side. (If larger paper must be used, the type area should be kept within the limits for A4 paper.)

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words or an equivalent length in pages including figures, tables, and references.

Tables and Figures. Any tables and figures should be on separate sheets of paper. Tables should use horizontal ruled lines only. Figures should be clearly and accurately drawn and clearly labelled.

Photographs. Ideally photographic material should be submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will no. be returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement. Preferably measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article, also double-spaced. A reference to a book or other separately published work should include full indication of the name(s) of the author(s); title of the work, and publisher and place and year of publication. A reference to an article in a book should include the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, title of the article, editor(s) of the book and title of the book, publisher and place and year of publication, and the page numbers of the article. A reference to an article in a journal should include the author(s), title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue number and date, and page numbers of the article. Unpublished material should not be listed in the references,

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and official affiliation. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere-in the same or modified form-a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts which are not accepted for publication will not be returned.

Contributions should be addressed to:

The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
The United Nations University
Cambridge Programme Office
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 20-A-201
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA


La rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin recherche des articles traitant de sujets correspondant à ses thèmes. La remise d'un manuscrit ne signifie pas sa publication, qui dépend de l'opinion de la rédaction sur son intérêt et sa qualité.

Langues: Les manuscrits peuvent être rédigés en anglais, en français ou en espagnol, et dans ces deux derniers cas, l'auteur ajoutera, si possible, un résumé en anglais.

Format: Les manuscrits doivent être dactylographiés, en double interligne, de préférence sur du papier de format A4 (210 x 297 mm) avec des marges de 2,5 ou 3 cm de part et d'autre. (Si un papier plus grand doit être utilisé, on limitera la partie dactylographie au format A4).

Longueur: Les manuscrits ne doivent pas, ordinairement, dépasser 4 000 mots ou l'équivalent, en nombre de pages, s'il y a des figures, des tableaux et une bibliographie.

Tableaux et figures: Ils doivent être reportes sur des feuillets séparés. Les tableaux doivent être reproduits avec les partitions horizontales, mais non verticales. Les figures doivent être claires et précises, avec légendes explicites.

Photographies: En principe, les matériaux photographiques doivent être remis sous forme de négatifs noir et blanc sur papier brillant. Sauf demande expresse les photographies ne seront pas renvoyées.

Unités de mesure: On utilisera de préférence le système métrique. Si d'autres systèmes sont utilisés, l'équivalent métrique doit être indiqué.

Bibliographie: Elle doit figurer à la fin du manuscrit, en double interligne. La référence à un ouvrage ou à tous travaux déjà publiés doit comprendre une indication complète du nom du ou des auteurs, du titre, de la maison d'édition et de l'année de publication. La référence à une communication figurant dans un ouvrage doit comprendre le nom du ou des auteurs, le titre, le responsable de la publication et le titre de celle-ci, la maison d'édition, l'année de publication et la pagination de la communication. Une référence à un article figurant dans un périodique doit indiquer l'auteur ou les auteurs, le titre de l'article, le nom du périodique, le volume et le numéro, la date et la pagination. Ne renfermez pas les références des manuscrits inédits.

Identification: Les auteurs doivent indiquer leur nom complet et leur fonction officielle. Si l'article à déjà été remis auparavant ou est retenu pour une autre publication-sous la même forme ou sous une forme modifiée-on l'indiquera de façon détaillée.

Copies du manuscrit: L'auteur doit conserver un double.

Les manuscrits non publiés ne sont pas renvoyés.
Les auteurs s' adresseront à la rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin United Nations University Cambridge Programme Office Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20-A-201 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA


Los editores del Food and Nutrition Bulletin agradecen el envío de contribuciones pertinentes al tema de la revista. La presentación de un articulo no es garantía de su publicación, la cual dependerá del criterio de los editores en lo que respecta a su pertinencia y calidad.

Idioma. Las contribuciones podrán remitirse en los idiomas español, francés o inglés. En caso de utilizar español o francés, el autor deberá incluir, de ser posible, un resumen en inglés.

Formato. Las contribuciones deberán presentarse a doble espacio, mecanografiadas, preferiblemente en papeles A4 (210 x 297 mm), o tamaño carta estadounidense (8 1/2 x 11 pulgadas), con márgenes de por lo menos 2,5 - 3 cm (1 - 1 1/4 pulgadas) de cada lado. (Si se usa papel de mayor tamaño, la zona mecanografiada no deber exceder los I imites del papel A4).

Longitud.Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras o su longitud equivalente en páginas, inclusive cuadros, cifras y referencias.

Cuadros y cifras. Todos los cuadros y cifras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros deberán presentarse en forma clara y precisa y con rotulado legible. Las cifras utiliza ran únicamente líneas horizontales.

Fotografías. Preferentemente se utilizará material fotográfico remitido bajo la forma de negativos de color blanco y negro o impresos brillantes en blanco y negro. De no mediar un pedido especial, no se devolverán las fotografías.

Unidades de medida. Las medidas deberán expresarse preferentemente en unidades métricas. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.

Referencias. Al final del articulo deberán consignarse las referencias, también en doble espacio. La referencia a un libro u otra obra publicada por separado deberá incluir indicación completa del nombre o los nombres del autor o los autores, titulo del trabajo, editorial y lugar y fecha de publicación. La referencia a un articulo de un libro deberá comprender el nombre o los nombres del autor o los autores del articulo, el titulo del mismo, editores del libro y titulo del mismo, editorial, lugar y fecha de publicación, y numeración de las páginas del articulo. La referencia a un articulo de una revista comprenderá nombres del autor o autores, titulo del articulo, nombre de la publicación, volumen y número y fecha, así como la numeración de las paginas del articulo. El material sin publicar no debe incluirse en las referencias.

Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y la institución en que cumplen funciones. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé su publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada, se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.

Copias manuscritas. El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia o duplicado del manuscrito. No se devolverán los manuscritos que no se acepten para publicación.

Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a:

The Editor

Food and Nutrition Bulletin
The United Nations University
Cambridge Programme Office
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20-A-201Cambridge,
Massachusetts 02139, USA

UNU Publications on Food and Nutrition

The Use of Organic Residues in Rural Communities

The first six papers in this report, the second in the applied microbiology series, deal with residues of potential importance as animal feeds, and a further six discuss the application of fermentation technology to carbohydrate substrates for the production of materials suitable for human consumption. Alternative biological energy sources are considered, as is biotechnology for rural communities. Separate discussions on biogas, cellulosic wastes, and carbohydrate and other residues are also included.

IPWN-2/UNUP-362 ISBN 92-808-0362-X 177 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

Protein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data

A report of a joint UNU-International Union of Nutritional Sciences working group describing and evaluating data obtained from research to determine the amounts of protein in usual diets required for nitrogen balance and, in the case of children, for growth as well. The discussions and presentations of data from nineteen countries are accompanied by a comparative tabulation and analysis of the nitrogen-balance data reported; and the working group's recommendations for the additional research most urgently required for an in depth review of international recommendations for protein energy requirements are outlined.

WHTR -4 /UNUP-295 ISBN 92-8084295-X 268 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper bound

Interdisciplinary Dialogue on World Hunger

In order to define an acceptable set of goals, processes, and indicators for food and nutrition policy and to forge practicable recommendations for research and training, the UNU World Hunger Programme met with the Human and Social Development Programme in a workshop in March 1979. This report describes an attempt to apply the approaches of one group to the research and training programmes of another through substantive interdisciplinary dialogue.

IPDHW-1 /UNUP-229 ISBN 92-8084229-1 67 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper bound

Nutritional Evaluation of Protein Foods

A report of a joint UNU-International Union of Nutrition Sciences working group Presenting a revision of the methods for the comprehensive assessment of the nutritive value of food and feed protein sources. It begins with the determination of nitrogen content, the identification of the principal nitrogenous constituents of the food, and the assessment of nutritional values, including digestibility, by means of in vitro and in vivo assays. The methods and procedures as well as their significance and limitations are considered.

WHTR-3/UNUP-129 ISBN 92-808-0129-5 154 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper bound

Food Price Policies and Nutrition in Latin America

A workshop report analyzing the effects of governmental food price policies on the nutritional status of the populations of Latin America and the Caribbean. It points out areas that need further research and suggests methods for conducting it that can be adopted by third-world governments. it also seeks to increase the awareness of industrialized countries of the impact of their international trade policies on the citizens of developing countries.

WHTR-2/UN UP-128 ISBN 92-808-128-7 170 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

Bioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities

A compilation of papers from a workshop on the development of techniques for the production of biomass from organic residues-focusing on the potential of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and algae to upgrade organic wastes into valuable feed products through simple fermentation processes. Especially for developing countries with predominantly rural populations, it is imperative that such low con bioconvertion techniques be fully encouraged for improvement of the socio economic, nutritional, and health conditions of rural areas.

IPWN-1/UNUP-43 ISBN 9290840434 176 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper bound

Protein-Energy Requirements under Conditions. Prevailing in Developing Countries: Current Knowledge and Research Needs

A report on the current state of knowledge regarding protein and energy requirements and appropriate dietary allowances for people living under the conditions prevailing in developing countries and consuming local diets. It brings together much previously unevaluated original data-and points up the failure of present international recommendations to take Sufficiently into account the protein-energy needs for recovery and catch up growth following frequent acute and chronic infections and differences in the digestibility and protein quality of local diets. A principal function of the report is to provide suggestions for further needed research.

WHTR-1 /UNUP-18 ISBN 92-808-0018-3 73 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper bound

Maternal Diet, Breast-Feeding Capacity, and Lactational Infertility

The interrelationships of maternal diet, lactation, and postpartum amenorrhoea are of major importance to maternal and child health, particularly in the Third World, affecting as they do, not only infant nutrition but also birth-spacing. The health policies and programmes of developing countries generally focus the major share of their limited available health resources on these most vulnerable sectors of their Populations, thereby not giving due attention to other, equally important, areas. This publication recommends research in a number of areas, including: discrepancies between recommended dietary allowances during pregnancy and lactation and actual consumption levels; the response of a mother's capacity to produce milk where protein and energy deficiencies are limiting factors; and the range of breast milk volumes produced by healthy, totally breast-feeding mothers, and mothers with optimal management of their lactation.

WHTR-5/UNUP-338 ISBN 92-808-0338-7 107 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

How to Order Publications

UNU publications may be ordered from the distributors listed below. Since some of the titles may not be in stock, the distributor will obtain these for you as soon as possible. The distributor will also be glad to put you on a mailing list to receive information about new and forthcoming titles.

Publications are also available directly from the University. Write: Publications Section, Academic Services, The United Nations University, Toho Seimei Building, 15-1, Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan

Microform Publishing: All UNU publications can be obtained on microfiche.



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The Food and Nutrition Bulletin is intended to make available policy analyses, state-of-the-art summaries, and original scientific articles, particularly as they relate to developing countries and to persons engaged in multidisciplinary efforts in alleviating problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world. It is not intended for the publication of scientific articles of principal interest only to individuals in a single discipline, or within a single country or region. More notices of relevant books and other publications will be published if they are received for review. The Bulletin is also a vehicle for notices of forthcoming international meetings and summaries of such meetings when they satisfy the above criteria.

In addition to serving as the successor to the Bulletin of the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System (PAG), that terminated publication in 1977, it is the principal outlet for publication in 1977, it is the principal outlet for publication of the reports of working groups and other activities of the U.N.-ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition (SCN) and its Advisory Group on Nutrition (AGN), as described in the October 1978 issue of the Bulletin. The SCN itself is a focal point for coordinating the activities of FAD/WHO, UNICEF, UNU, UNESCO, the World Bank, the World Food Programme, the World Food Council, the United Nations

Environment Programme, and other U.N. bodies with an interest in food and nutrition.

Unsolicited manuscripts of the type published in this and past issues may be sent to: Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20-A-201, Cambridge. Mass. 02139, USA. All articles submitted will be reviewed promptly and the author notified of the editorial decision. Any disciplinary or conceptual approach relevant to problems of world hunger and malnutrition is welcomed, and controversy over some of the articles is anticipated. Some articles in the Bulletin represent the reports of various other international committees and working groups, and do represent the consensus of the individuals involved. Whether or not they also represent the opinions or policies of the sponsoring organizations is expressly stated.

Letters to the Editor are encouraged, and will be printed if judged to have an adequate basis and to be of sufficient general interest. It is expressly understood that articles published in the Bulletin do not necessarily present the views of the United Nations University or any United Nations organization. The views expressed and the accuracy of the information on which they are based are the responsibility of the authors.



Purposes and structure

1. The united Nations University shall be an international community of scholars, engaged in research, post-graduate training and dissemination of knowledge in furtherance of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. In achieving its stated objectives, it shall function under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (hereinafter referred to as UNESCO), through a central programming and co-ordinating body and a network of research and post-graduate training centres and programmes located in the developed and developing countries

2. The University shall devote its work to research into the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are the concern of the United Nations and its agencies, with due attention to the social sciences and the humanities as well as natural sciences, pure and applied.

3. The research programmes of the institutions of the University shall include, among other subjects, coexistence between peoples having different cultures. languages and social systems: peaceful relations between States and the maintenance of peace and security; human rights; economic and social change and development; the environment and the proper use of resources; basic scientific research and the application of the results of science and technology in the interests of development; and universal human values related to the improvement of the quality of life.

4. The University shall disseminate the knowledge gained in its activities to the United Nations and its agencies. to scholars and to the public. in order to increase dynamic interaction in the worldwide community of learning and research.

5. The University and all those who work in it shall act in accordance with the spirit of the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the Constitution of UNESCO and with the fundamental principles of contemporary international law.

6. The University shall have as a central objective of its research and training centres and programmes the continuing growth of vigorous academic and scientific communities everywhere and particularly in the developing countries, devoted to their vital needs in the fields of learning and research within the framework of the aims assigned to those centres and programmes in the present Charter It shall endeavour to alleviate the intellectual isolation of persons in such communities in the developing countries which might otherwise become a reason for their moving to developed countries

7. In its post-graduate training the University shall assist scholars, especially young scholars, to participate in research in order to increase their capability to contribute to the extension, application and diffusion of knowledge. The University may also undertake the training of persons who will serve in international or national technical assistance programmes, particularly in regard to an interdisciplinary approach to the problems with which they will be called upon to deal.


Academic freedom and autonomy

1. The University shall enjoy autonomy within the framework of the United Nations. It shall also enjoy the academic freedom required for the achievement of its objectives, with particular reference to the choice of subjects and methods of research and training, the selection of persons and institutions to share in its tasks, and freedom of expression. The University shall decide freely on the use of the financial resources allocated for the execution of its functions...


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