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Acceptability and Tolerance Responses
Table 4 shows the results of the organoleptic acceptability responses of children and mothers in the field study and also of the children's gastrointestinal tolerance responses, as perceived by the mothers. Table 5 lists the foods most frequently consumed by the children in addition to the assigned food blend. The reader is referred to the field test protocol section above for background concerned with obtaining an analysis of questionnaire responses.
The left-hand set of evaluation scores and statistical significance information of table 4 pertains to data from all clinics and all children testing the foods. The total number of 157 children included 42 who shared food having the same sample number and an additional 7 of the total who were age 6 or older.
TABLE 3. Chemical, Physico-Chemical, and Physical Tests on Field-Tested Food Blends
|Category||Test||Blend CC||Blend MCSM|
|Free fatty acid (as % oleic in total lipids)||2.54||0.36|
|Peroxide value (meq/kg lipids)||1.70||3.00|
|Available lysine (%)||0.85||1.09|
|as % of total lysine||94||93|
|Free gossypol (ppm)||92||-|
|Total gossypol (ppm)||250||-|
|Physico-chemical||Consistency (Bostwick value)||Range1||4.7 - 7.7||15.8 - 20.7|
Material passing through
U.S. Stand. Sieve:
|Sieve analysis||No. 6||100||100|
1 Range and mean of five test runs.
There were no statistically significant differences found between blends CC and MCSM with respect to: (a) the children's eagerness to eat the food; (b) the mother's overall liking of the food; (c) the mother's opinion of appearance, flavour, or ease of preparation of the blends; or (d) the mother's perception of gastrointestinal effects (change in appetite, flatulence, vomiting, diarrhoea, and undigested stool contents) after the cooked gruels were eaten. The mothers had a significantly higher preference (p < 0.05) for the mouthfeel of the MCSM blend, which was thinner in consistency than the CC blend. Despite this statistically significant difference, the mean rating values for blend MCSM (1.013) and for blend CC (1.132) were close, and both were near the best rating scale of 1 = good. Although there were no statistically significant differences found between blends for the mothers' evaluation of appetite and flatulence changes, there were highly significant differences (p < 0.01) in rating values for these characteristics among clinics. The middle set of evaluation scores and statistical significance information of table 4 concerns the analysis of variance of responses for all children by clinic for appetite and flatulence. As observed, both of these factors were, for some reason, rated higher by mothers in clinic number 2 for both of the blends.
The table 4 mean value results of the left-hand set of evaluation scores for all clinics and all children show that both blends CC and MCSM were evaluated near or at the highest rating for the children's eargerness to eat the food, the mothers' overall liking of the food, and the mothers' evaluation of appearance, flavour, feel-in-the-mouth, and ease of preparation. The mean values also show that for both blends, appetite increased and the incidence of flatulence, vomiting, diarrhoea and amount of undigested stool contents reamained about the same during the field trial.
The right-hand set of evaluation scores and statistical significance information of table 4 concerns data from all clinics, with those for unqualified children removed. The responses for children sharing food having the same sample number and those age 6 and above were excluded. As shown, significant differences were not found between the two blends for any of the 11 questionnaire responses, including feel-in-the-mouth. Perhaps because of fewer observations, significant difference between blends was not found for this characteristic when unqualified children were excluded from the total. As in the case when all children's responses were included in the analysis, statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) differences in ratings among clinics were found for appetite and flatulence. In addition to this, there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in score among clinics (produced by responses in clinic number 1) for undigested stool contents. But again, there was no significant difference between blends for this characteristic.
TABLE 4. Blended Food Questionnaire Results
|Response Factor||Rating Scale||All Clinics CombinedAll Children1||By ClinicAll Children||All ClinicsUnqualified Children Omitted2|
|Mean Score||Statistical Sig.||Clinic
|Mean Score||Stat. Sig.||Mean Score||Statistical Sig.|
|Child's eagerness to eat the food||1= Like
|Mother's overall liking of the food||3= Dislike||1.195||1.100||NS||NS||NS||1.216||1.088||NS||NS||NS|
|Mother's opinion of food characteristics:|
|Ease of preparation||1.013||1.013||NS||NS||NS||1.000||1.000||NS||NS||NS|
|Mother's observation of gastrointestinal effects:|
|Vomiting||3= Decrease||1 986||2.013||NS||NS||NS||2.000||2.019||NS||NS||NS|
|Undigested stool contents||1.942||1.880||NS||NS||NS||2.000||1.904||NS||*||NS|
1 157 children; 77 used blend CC and 80, blend MCSM.
2 The data of 108 children were included. The data of 42 children were excluded from total of 157, because of sharing food having the same sample number. The data of 7 children, age 6 and older, were also excluded.
3 BT Blend type difference tested by analysis of variance (AOV).
4 CN Clinic number difference tested by AOV.
5 CN-BT The dependence between blends on clinic number was tested by AOV.
6 NS Statistical significance was tested for, but not found.
7 * Statistically significant, p <0,05,
8 ** Statistically highly significant, p <0.01.
TABLE 5. Principal Foods Claimed by Mothers to Have Been Consumed by Children in Addition to Blended Fond
|Food Category||Item||% Total Children* Claimed to Have Consumed Food Item|
|Orange juice||15 7|
Not shown in table 4 are the results of an analysis of variance for all clinics, using only the first child in each family. In this case also, statistical significance between blends was not found for any of the 11 response characteristics.
Table 5 shows the percentage of children consuming a number of other foods in addition to the assigned blended product, which was intended as a supplement. The most popular cereal staple was corn, followed by rice. Beans or other type vegetables were also commonly eaten. In comparison to plant foods, animal protein foods such as milk, meat, and fish were consumed by a considerably lower percentage of the children.
No allergic responses were observed during the study.
This study has demonstrated the feasibility of producing a corn-based, PL 480-type food blend containing glandless cottonseed flour that is comparable in nutritional quality, maternal and child acceptability, and child gastrointestinal tolerance to the extensively used US Food-for-Peace Program food, corn-soy-milk.
The blend containing glandless cottonseed flour offers the economic advantage of not requiring an animal protein component. However, at the present time glandless cottonseed flour is not economically competitive with soy flour. With more extensive cultivation of glandless cottonseed, the prospect of using this commodity in nutritious food blends will be more favourable.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions to this study of Victor Chew, Mathematical Statistician, Southern Region, USDA, Gainesville, Florida, for statistical analysis of the data; Michael R. Gumbmann, Toxicology and Biological Evaluation Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA, Berkeley, California,for protein evaluations by animal assay; and to the following auxiliary nutritionists at the designated centres in Haiti for their assistance in field testing: Mrs. Samuel Domersant (Delmas), Ms. Rita Innocent (Pernier), Mrs. Wilfrid Osias (Christ-Roi), Captain C. Pierre (Salvation Army), and Mrs Berne Zephir (Carrefour Feuilles)
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