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TABLE 6. Intake, Absorption, Excretion and Retention of Nitrogen, Calcium, and Phosphorus by Infants in Different Dietary Periods (Average of 9 Infants)*

  CMP
SMS-5410 SMS-5410
+ FLO
CMP
+ FLO
SMS-HP
- FLO
Intake, mg/kg/day 698 732 667 663 884
Excretion in faeces, mg/kg/day 671 67 125 49 154
in urine, mg/kg/day 440 368 380 455 514
Absorption, mg/kg/day 631 565 542 614 710
Retention, mg/kg/day 191 196 162 159 196
Absorption rate, % 90.4 77.2 81.3 92.6 82.2
Retention rate, % 27.3 26.6 24.3 24.1 22.6
Intake, mg/kg/day 165 149 142 157 139
Excretion in faeces, mg/kg/day 111 124 82 69 84
in urine, mg/kg/day 3 2 2 5 2
Absorption, mg/kg/day 54 26 60 88 55
Retention, mg/kg/day 51 24 58 83 53
Absorption rate, % 32.7 16.8 42.3 56.0 39.5
Retention rate, % 30.8 15.4 40.8 53.0 38.1
Intake, mg/kg/day 144 133 128 138 128
Excretion in faeces, mg/kg/day 37 77 60 22 69
in urine, mg/kg/day 68 32 32 65 34
Absorption, mg/kg/day 107 56 68 116 59
Retention, mg/kg/day 39 24 36 51 25
Absorption rate, % 74.2 41.0 53.1 84.0 46.8
Retention rate, % 27.1 18.0 32.1 37.0 19.5
N:Ca:P ratio, intake 4.9:1.2:1 5.5:1.1:1 5.2:1.1:1 4.8:1.1:1 6.8:1.1:1
Retention 5.0:1.3:1 8.2:1.0:1 4.5:1.6:1 3.1:1.6:1 7.8:2.1:1

*Weighing between 5.2 to 6.83 kg, consuming 4.4 to 5.4 g protein/kg/day, and between 845 to 949 mg calcium/day (all numbers incresing from CMP through SMS-HP)

TABLE 7. The Number, Form and Weight of Stools in Different Dietary Periods (Average of 9 Infants)

    CMP SMS-5410 SMS-5410
+ FLO
CMP
+ FLO
SMS HP
+ FLO
No. of stools Average 3.2 2.2 2.0 1.7 2.4
per day Range 0-8 0-6 0-6 0-4 0-8
Form of Stools Formed 14.2 36.6 48.6 21.5 44.7
and % of Paste 75.1 60.9 51.4 70.5 51.3
total no. Fluid 10.7 2.5 0.0 8.0 4.0
Average wt. of Wet 103.8 130.2 111.3 80.0 132.0
stool, g/day Dry 8.5 16.5 13.4 7.2 20.2

*See footnotes to' Table 8a- 8b for explanation of abbreviations.

TABLE 8a. The Daily Intake of Energy from Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate: Absorption and Utilization by Infants in Different Dietary Periods (Average of 9 Infants)

Source
of
Energy

CMP*

SMS-5410**

SMS-5410+FLO***

Intake
Absorbed
Utilized
Intake
Absorbed
Utilized
Intake
Absorbed
Utilized
  kcal kcal % kcal kcal % kcal kcal %
Protein 17.4 15.7 90.2 18.3 14.1 77.0 16.6 13.5 81.3
Fat 41.8 35.8 85 6 31.3 29.3 93.6 28.7 27.3 95.1
CHO 52.6 51.2 97.3 67.5 63.7 93.5 62.6 50.9 94.2
Total 111.8 102.8   117.1 106.5   107.9 99.8  
Average     91.7     90.9     92.4

*CMP =cow-s milk powder diet
**SMS-5410 =Soybean milk substitute 5410
***SMS-5410+FLO=Soybean milk substitute 5410+fish liver oil

TABLE 8b. The Daily Intake of Energy From Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate: Absorption and Utilization by Infants in Different Dietary Periods (Average of 9 Infants)

Source
of
Energy

CMP + FLO

SMS-HP + FLO

Intake
kcal
Absorbed
kcal
Utilized
%
Intake
kcal
Absorbed
kcal
Utilized
%
Protein 16.5 15.3 92.7 21.5 17.7 82.3
Fat 40.2 36.0 89.5 33.8 32.5 96.1
CHO 50.6 49.3 97.6 50.4 45.3 89.9
Total 107.3 100.6   105.8 95.5  
Average     93.7     90.3

AMP + PLO = Covv's milk povvder diet +fish liver oil
Soybean milk substitute, high-protein +fish liver oil

APPENDIX METHOD OF PREPARATION OF SOYBEAN MILK FORMULA SMS-5410

1. Raw Materials and their Treatment

Soybean. Remove sand, spoiled beans, seeds other than soybean, and other impurities. Immerse the selected beans in water at room temperature ;15C) for 4 hours, just allowing the beans to swell. Steam the soaked beans in a steam cooker at atmospheric pressure for 30 minutes. Spread the hot beans over a mat and blow with an electric fan to remove the water vapor. If the latter is not removed quickly, the husk of the bean becomes sticky and difficult to remove afterwards. Dry the cooked beans in a hot-air chamber, or preferably in a rotating drum drier, at 70 to 80C While crushing the beans slightly with a loosely adjusted mill, remove the husk and germs by the aid of an electric fan. The germs, if not removed, will impart a bitter taste to the final product.

Grind the husked beans with a hammer mill (electric, 5,000 RPM) and pass the flour through an 80-mesh sieve. Repeat grinding the coarse particles. The extraction rate is about 90 per cent.

Rice. Wash the rice once or twice with the least possible amount of water to remove impurities. Do not rub the rice with hands while washing. Soak the rice in water for about 15 minutes, then spread it on a mat and leave it for 1 to 2 hours. Grind the moist rice and pass the flour through a 100-mesh sieve. Repeat grinding the coarse particles. The extraction rate is about 70 per cent. Dry the moist flour in a hot-air chamber at 70 to 80C. (If rice is ground dry, the particles become coarse and hard).

Cane sugar. Use dried, granulated cane sugar and grind it to a fine powder in a hammer mill.

Soybean of. Heat pure soybean oil to a temperature of about 200C until smoke disappears.

Egg yolk. Use spray-dried egg yolk powder or the yolk of freshly boiled egg. In the latter case, the amount must be calculated on a dry basis.

Millet If millet is used, grind the dried material and pass the flour through a 100-mesh sieve. Keep the flour away from direct sunlight.

Salt Dry the salt first before grinding and pass the ground powder through a 100-mesh sieve.

Bone powder. Degelatinized bones (bones of the front and hind limbs from the slaughter house), the by-product of a glue factory, are used. (These bones have been treated with steam under 20 to 25 pounds of pressure for 10 hours and repeatedly extracted with hot water). Clean the bones thoroughly with water. Air-dry the washed bones and crush them into small pieces about the size of peas. Grind to powder and pass through a 120-mesh sieve.

2. Mixing

Weigh accurately each ingredient according to the formula. Mix millet or riboflavin, bone meal, and salt with a portion of the rice flour. Add egg yolk powder and sugar and mix again. Mix the oil with the remaining portion of rice flour. Combine the two mixtures. Finally, add soybean flour and mix. Pass the mixture through 80-mesh sieve at least twice to ensure evenness.

3. Moulding

Weigh a definite quantity of the above mixture and spread it on a specially made tray. Level the powder evenly and press with a wooden board. Cut into small rectangular cubes with a knife. Sixteen cubes weigh 125 9.

4. Steaming

Place the tray with the cut cubes in a steamer, and steam for 30 minutes.

5. Drying

Place the tray with the cooked cubes in a drying chamber at 70 to 80C until the moisture of the finished product is less than 5 per cent.

6 Packing

Cool the dried cubes to room temperature; wrap them with sterilized wax paper and then place the package in a cardboard box. One package contains 16 cubes.

REFERENCES

1. E. Tso, "The Development of an infant Fed Eight Months on a Soybean Milk Diet." Chinese J. Physiol. 2: 33 (1928).

2. E. Tso, M. Yee, and T.T. Chen, "The Nitrogen, Calcium, and Phosphorus Metabolism in Infants Fed on Soybean Milk." Chinese J. Physiol. 2: 409 (1928).

3. E. Tso and F.T. Chu, "Nitrogen Metabolism in Infants on Graded Intake of Soybean Milk Protein." Chinese J. Physiol. 5: 287 (1931).

4. E. Tso and K.C. Chang, "A Soluble Soybean Milk Powder and Its Adaptation to Infant Feeding." Chinese J. Physiol. 5: 199 (1931).

5. T. Fan, T. Wu and F.T. Chu, "Metabolic Studies on the Routed Soybean Meal as an Infant Food." China Med. J. 56: 53 (1940).

6. R.A. GUY and K.S. Yeh, "Soybean Milk as a Food for Young Infants. " China Med. J. 54: 1 (1938 ) .

7. R.A. GUY and K.S. Yeh, "Roasted Soybean in Infant Feeding," China Med. J. 54: 101 (1938).

8. D.S. Liu, C.Q. Tian, and C.Y. Chou, "Studies on Milk Substitute. VIII. Soybean-Induced Goiter and the Method of Prevention." Food Industry 1: 1 (1980).

9. F.T. Chu (Ed.), Practice/ Pediatrics. People's Medical Publishing House, (1957).

10. I.H. Scheinberg (Ed.), Infant Matabolism. Macmillan, Now York (1956), p. 127.

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