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News and notes

UNPD grant for UNU research project
New and recent books
Publications available
Abstracts of selected current articles in food and nutrition
Congress of food science and technology

UNPD grant for UNU research project

The United Nations University Project on Hunger, Health, and Society is the recipient of a grant from the United Nations Development Programme to support research on the impact of agricultural policies on nutrition and health status. The work is part of a series of co-ordinated grants made simultaneously to the UN University, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) on the general subject of food security policies. The specific objectives of the UNU project are to provide decision-makers with: (i) a theoretical basis on which to understand the relationship between the alteration of agricultural production and food supply policies and the resulting impacts on the nutrition and health status of low-income populations, (ii) a set of indicators that can be used to predict the impact of alternative production and supply policies on nutrition and health, and (iii) a set of criteria that may be employed in ex post evaluations of the effectiveness of food security initiatives focused on agricultural production as a means of improving nutrition and health.

The work plan for the research has been divided into four separate functional stages. First, utilizing the global institutional network of the UNU Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty, a task force is being established which will consist of eight to ten individuals to consider the specific impacts on nutrition and health of food security policies designed to promote agricultural production and/or to expand food supply in other ways. The task force is expected to generate a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge concerning this relationship and to identify specific studies that need to be undertaken to fill the gaps in present knowledge. Second, on the basis of the work of the task force, original research papers will be commissioned, dealing with both the theoretical and practical dimensions of the impacts of food security policies on nutrition and health. Third, after the papers are reviewed and accepted by the task force, a workshop conference will be convened, involving the original task force members, the authors of the papers, and five to ten additional experts in the field to review and discuses the results. The final stage of the project is to be the editing of the papers and workshop proceedings.

The project is under the direction of Dr. Mitchel B. Wallerstein, Associate Director of the MlT/Harvard International Food and Nutrition Program, and it is designed to be carried out within a three-year time frame.

New and recent books

Endemic Goiter and Endemic Cretinism, edited by J.B. Stanbury and B.S. Hetzel (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980). This monograph is an updating of information regarding the geographical distribution of endemic goitre and endemic cretinism, the pathogenesis and aetiology of these conditions, and their prevention and treatment. The contributors are field investigators who have been active in the study of these diseases over the past decade or more. Both endemic goitre and endemic cretinism are seen as being easily and inexpensively preventable.

Extrusion of Foods, 2 vole., by J.M. Harper (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., USA, 1982). Volume 1 covers the development of food extrusion and provides background for anyone involved with, or interested in, food-extrusion applications. Details of extrusion equipment used in all aspects of the food industry and practical information on the operation and control of food-extrusion processes are provided. The underlying theory of extrusion is derived to provide the reader with an insight into food-extrusion operations, scale-up, and control. Volume 2 deals specifically with the technology of applying food extrusion. Details of the extrusion of starch and starch-based foods such as snacks, ready-to-eat cereals, etc., are provided, and the extrusion of protein flours and concentrates to create texture and structure is thoroughly reviewed. Finally, the extrusion of nutritious food supplements directed toward food problem is examined.

Iron Deficiency: Brain Biochemistry and Behavior, edited by E. Pollitt and R.L. Leibel (Raven Press, New York, 1982). This volume (based on a workshop sponsored by and co-published with the United Nations University) contains the most recent basic and clinical results of research on the effect of mild iron deficiency on brain function. The first part discusses the role of metals, in particular iron, in nervous system metabolism. Other chapters deal with how iron is involved in central nervous system oxidative metabolism, dopamine receptor function, catecholamine metabolism, and body temperature regulation. Another section gives details on assessment of iron deficiency, including biological and haematological indices of iron deficiency and measurement of neurotransmitter metabolites. The last section describes human and animal studies on functional effects of iron deficiency. Although the main focus of the book is iron deficiency, it also provides a model for further research in the complex new field of nutrient/behaviour interactions. The authors represent a broad spectrum of disciplines and approaches to the subject of defining nutritional deficiency and the biochemical mechanisms that bring about changes in brain function.

Malnourished Children of the Rural Poor, by J.B. Balderston, A.B. Wilson, M.E. Freire, and M.S. Simonen (Auburn House, Boston, Mass., USA, 1981). Utilizing field study data obtained by INCAP between 1969 and 1978, the authors analyse the effects of nutrition on health and on school participation and performance, the relationship between literacy and agricultural productivity, and the relationship between women's education and desired family size. The effects on very young children of social programmes in several sectors- nutrition, health, education- are pursued simultaneously and are examined in the light of detailed knowledge about the context of family and village. The data provided present strong evidence of the value of nutrition education in a developing country and offer nutrition, family planning, public health, and rural development policy recommendations.

Nutrition and Infant Development by Adolfo Chávez and Celia Martinez. The monograph Nutrición y Desarrollo Infantil (see review in the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 2 [April 1981], p. 351 has now been translated into English and is available from the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Apartado Postal 1188, Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Nutrition and Population Growth: The Delicate Balance, by M.F. Zeitlin, J.D. Wray, J.B. Stanbury, N.P. Schlossman, M.J. Meurer, and P.J. Weinthal (Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 1982). This book focuses on nutrition-fertility interactions. First, it synthesizes recent research findings in areas where controversy continues because underlying physiological and psycho-social phenomena still are poorly understood. Second, it brings together in one volume a consideration of the different levels of nutrition-fertility interaction that have simultaneous and interlocking implications for policy formation and programme design. Finally, it defines the programme design implications of these interactions in terms that can be understood at the programme operational level. The remaining half of the book, 151 pages, is devoted to an annotated bibliography of the interactions in less developed countries, grouped by geographic areas.

Publications available

The following documents are available from the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI), Jamaica Centre, PO Box 140, Kingston 7, Jamaica.

Anaemia Status and Current Methods for Its Control in Antigua: Suggested Methods for Its Control through the Primary Health Care System. RC641.C3. CFNI, Kingston, 1981. 34 pp., mimeo.

Dietary Management of Diabetes Mellitus: A Guide for Organizing and Conducting Workshops and follow-up Activities. Compiled by M. Zephirin. RC660.C32. CFNI, Kingston, 1981. 105 pp.

A Guide for Incorporating Nutrition into Basic Nursing Education Curricula. Collaboration of Una Reid and M. Zephirin. TX364.C33. CFNI, Kingston, 1981.85 pp.

A Guide for Incorporating Nutrition into Post-basic Nursing Education Curricula. Collaboration of Una Reid and M. Zephirin. TX364.C34. CFNI, Kingston, 1981. 69 pp.

Report on the Nutritional Status of Vulnerable Groups in Antigua, Barbuda. CFNI-J-3-82. CFNI, Kingston, 1982. 18 pp., tables, mimeo.

Report on the Nutritional Status of Vulnerable Groups in St. Kitts-Nevis CFNI-J-4-82. CFNI, Kingston, 1982. 43 pp., tables, mimeo.

Report on the Nutritional Status of Vulnerable Groups in St. Lucia. CFNI-J-2-82. CFNI, Kingston, 1982. 28 pp., tables, mimeo.

Seminar on Food Marketing for Better Nutrition: Report of a Seminar Held at CFNI , St. Augustine, Trinidad, 13-15 March 1978. CFNI-T-42-78. CFNI, Trinidad, 1978.34 pp., mimeo.

Shortage of Commercial Tinned Infant Formulae: Advice Compiled by CFNI, 1981. PAM TX361.I5C33.

Strategy to Promote Successful Breastfeeding in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, 1980. CFNI-T-1-82. CFNI, Trinidad, 1982. 11 pp., mimeo.

Strategy to Promote Successful Breastfeeding in Trinidad and Tobago. CFNI-T-59-81 CFNI, Trinidad, 1981. 24 pp., mimeo

A Strategy for the Control of Anaemia in the English-Speaking Caribbean CFNI-J-38-81. CFNI, Kingston, 1981. 28 pp., mimeo.

Workshops on the Dietary Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Selected Papers. Compiled by M. Zephirin. RC660.C31. CFNI, Kingston, 1981. 75 pp.

C. Mclntosh. Food Distribution: Problems and Prospects. CFNI-T-4-82. CFNI, Trinidad, 1982. 7 pp., mimeo.

C Mclntosh. Home Food Production: Advantages and Some Constraints. CFNI -T-6-82. CFNI, Trinidad, 1982. 4 pp., mimeo.

P. Manchew. Factors Interfering with Breastfeeding. CFNI-T62-81. CFNl, Trinidad, 1982. 5 pp., mimeo.

S. Maximay. Report on the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System in St. Kitts-Nevis. CFNI-T-2-82. CFNI, Trinidad, 1982. 43 pp., mimeo.

J. Peters. Socio-economic and Cultural Factors /influencing Food Choices and Meal Patterns. CFNI-J-13-81. CFNI, Kingston, 1981. 5 pp., mimeo.

Abstracts of selected current articles in food and nutrition

[Prethrombosis in Child Malnutrition]. R. Jiménez, E. Jiménez, L.A. Mora, W. Vargas, F. Atmetlla, and J.M. Carrillo.Arch. Latinoam. Nutr., 30 (4): 580 (1980), Antithrombin III (AT III) and heparin antithrombin assay were estimated in 30 severely malnourished children and 40 normal children. The AT III was found significantly depressed and the heparin antithrombin assay showed a flat curve in the patients, which reflects a prethrombotic pattern in this group of children. Those findings agree with the high incidence of thrombosis reported in childhood malnutrition.

[Environmental and Socio-cultural Parameters Affecting Nutrition in Third World Countries]. D. Sanjur. Arch. Latinoam. Nutr., 39 (4): 634 (1980). The thrust of this paper is an analysis of the environmental and socio-cultural parameters affecting dietary patterns in Third World countries. The author utilizes data from several studies to emphasize her thesis that malnutrition in developing societies is not caused simply by income constraints, or food availability, but rather that it results from a constellation of problems, ranging from environmental stresses to social inequities to cultural factors. Special discussion is given to the variables of income distribution, social stratification, and food beliefs as major contributing influences on malnutrition in Third World countries. The problems facing newly migrating urban squatters- or what are known as "societies in transition" in the context of high unemployment and new demands for food- are also dealt with in the Latin American setting. The author discusses the importance of recognizing that since the aetiology of malnutrition is ecologically based, the approaches to solving this problem must also, by definition, be ecological. The need to further develop meaningful conceptual models- in contrast to utilizing "imported" ones- in order to study and understand the nature and magnitude of malnutrition problems in Third World countries is also stressed.

"Observations of the Alt Xingu Indians (Central Brazil) with Special Reference to Nutritional Evaluation in Children." U. Fagundes-Neto, R.G. Baruzzi, J. Wehba, W.S. Silvestrini, M.B. Morais, and M. Cainelli. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34 (10): 2229 (1981). Little information concerning the nutritional status of Brazilian Indians living primitively in a large area of the Amazon region is available at present. This study took place in the Xingu National Park, created to preserve the Indian population living in this area, along with their culture. Field work was done in three consecutive years (1974, 1975, 1976), during which 175 children were studied (97 male and 78 female), all estimated to be under five years of age. Two kinds of studies were performed- cross-sectional: studying children who entered the survey each year; and longitudinal: studying children who were under observation for two or three consecutive years. The nutritional status was evaluated by two age-independent anthropometric indices- weight for height, and arm circumference for height. By the weight-for-height index 96.0 per cent of the children examined were classified as well nourished, 3.4 per cent suffered from first-degree malnutrition, and 0.6 per cent from second-degree malnutrition. By the arm-circumference-for-height index 97.1 per cent were classified as well nourished, and 2.9 per cent were classified as suffering from a mild degree of malnutrition. Since both indices used can give normal results in a population in which there is severe stunting or nutritional dwarfism, a longitudinal study was done. Growth in height was studied, with normal results in 84.8 per cent of the measurements taken. In contrast to children from low income families living in the outskirts of large urban centres, where malnutrition reaches 54.0 per cent, the Indians remain as healthy as they were when last examined 30 years ago.

"Weight-for-Height Indices to Assess Nutritional Status- A New Index on a Slide-Rule." T.J. Cole, M.L. Donnet, and J.P. Stanfield. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 34 (9): 1935 (1981). The protein-energy malnutrition classification schemes of Waterlow and McLaren, although similar in other respects, assess the weight for height of children in quite different ways. The drawbacks of their two methods are described, and an alternative method is presented which overcomes them. The new index is called "weight/height2 for age," and consists of the ratio weight/height2 expressed as a percentage of the same ratio for a reference child of the same age. Although the index is not age-independent, it is insensitive to all but the grossest errors in age for children over 12 months old. The index is equally appropriate for the assessment of obesity. A slide-rule based on the Tanner standard is available to do the calculation.

"Physical Growth and Development and Nutritional Status: Epidemiological Considerations." F.E. Johnston, Fed. Proc., 40 (11): 2583 (1981). The analysis of growth and development provides the researcher with a valuable tool with which to study the nutritional status of populations. Studies of the growth of children from a one-year birth cohort from a southern Mexican village indicate that growth is an acceptable indicator of chronic protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Furthermore, analysis of the body size of the parents of the children with chronic PEM indicates that the parents themselves were most likely chronically malnourished during their development. The linear and lateral dimensions of parents, but not the measure of their body composition, may be acceptable indicators of the risk of malnutrition in their children, based on the analysis of sensitivity and specificity.

"Human Adaptability Approach to Nutritional Assessment: A Bolivian Example." J.D. Haas. Fed Proc., 40 (11): 2577 (1981). Recent interest in the functional correlates of mild to moderate malnutrition has provided an opportunity for anthropologists to collaborate in research with nutritional scientists. Physical anthropological studies of human adaptability have developed the methodology and theory to examine the importance of general and specific functional areas of individual and population adaptations. This anthropological approach to human adaptability corresponds well with the functional approach to nutritional sciences. Examples are presented from recent physical anthropological research on high-altitude adaptation to demonstrate how this integration of disciplinary methodology can contribute to a better understanding of human nutritional status. The functional areas of child growth and female reproductive performance are examined in relation to the multi-stress environment of the Peruvian-Bolivian high Andes. Knowledge of how nutritional variation affects the adaptability of high-altitude populations provides a better basis for the identification of protein-energy malnutrition during childhood and iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy.

"Nutrition Education Research: An Interdisciplinary Evaluation and Review." S.R. Levy, B.K. Iverson, and H.J. Walberg. Health Educ. Quart., 7 (2): 107 (1980). An interdisciplinary evaluation approach was developed to analyse and compare school nutrition education programmes systematically. Theoretical models from education, preventive medicine, health education, and statistical evaluation were applied to 22 studies published between 1968 and 1978 to judge programme impact on nutrition knowledge, behaviour, and attitudes. Six studies reported XS and SDs for control and experimental groups. Effect sizes, showing average treatment effect in standard deviation units, were calculated for those six studies. It can be concluded that the more interdisciplinary criteria a study fulfill, the more likely it is to influence knowledge, behaviour, and attitudes.

"Nutrition and Immunity." R.R. Watson. ASDC J. Dent. Child., 48 (6): 443 (1981). Severe protein deficiencies such as kwashiorkor result in immuno-suppression of humoral cellular and mucosal immune systems. These suppressions result in a greater incidence of disease in animals and humans and create increased risks of morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease or neoplasias. The effect of moderate protein-calorie deficiency on immuno-competence appears to be highly variable in studies with experimental animals. In young animals, some parts of the host-defence systems are stimulated while others are inhibited. These effects appear to result in long life-spans. This may be due to slower maturation and, hence, a slower decline of host-defence systems in the moderately malnourished animals.

"The Effect of Nutritional Support on Immune Competency in Patients Suffering from Trauma, Sepsis, or Malignant Disease." T.J. Mullin and J.R. Kirkpatrick Surgery, 90 (4): 610 (1981). Thirty-nine patients, 25 of whom were suffering from trauma, sepsis, or malignant disease, were studied prospectively to determine the immunologic value of improved protein-calorie balance in this setting. All were suffering from varying degrees of malnutrition, and 72 per cent (P < 0.05) of the patients with energy-inducing disease processes were anergic at the time of evaluation. In the presence of disease-including energy, skin-test reactivity was not helpful in measuring the therapeutic response to nutritional support; among severely wasted patients, significant elevations in absolute Iymphocyte count and serum albumin suggest that these are useful parameters when following the severely wasted patient who has concomitant trauma, sepsis, or malignant disease.

"Prolonged Consumption by Infants of Wheat-Based Diets with and without Casein or Lysine Supplementation." G.G. Graham, W.C. MacLean, Jr., and G. Lopez de Romaña. J. Nutr., 111 (11): 1917 (1981). Infants consumed 75 per cent of calories as 82 per cent extraction wheat flour with satisfactory short-term protein and energy digestion. Protein needs, represented by N retentions from casein, probably were not satisfied. Long term (3 + months) studies in four infants showed that 50 per cent calories and 80 per cent protein from wheat (casein added to 8 per cent protein calories) supported weight gain and linear growth more than expected. Prolonged feeding of 75 per cent calories and 100 per cent protein from wheat was attempted in three infants. In the oldest (15.5 months), digestibility and growth were satisfactory; in one, despite good digestion, weight gain and growth were inadequate and serum albumin fell until 0.2 per cent Iysine was added; and in another, weight gain was satisfactory but albumin fell to 3.25 g/dl and growth was inadequate. In six other infants, Iysine addition during the second and third months was associated with significant increase in N retention and weight gain and stabilization of albumin; Iysine withdrawal resulted in significant decrease in weight gain with no effect on N retention or albumin; growth was barely adequate during the three-month study. Serum cholesterol fell only when dietary protein was inadequate. It is practically impossible for unsupplemented wheat to satisfy protein needs of infants and most small children.

"Diet as Adaptation: The Search for Nutritional Strategies." J.M. DeWalt. Fed. Proc., 40 (11): 2606 (1981). This paper addresses two important methodological problems in the study of diet and nutrition. These are: the problem of looking at individual variations in diet within a system of shared dietary norms, and the difficulties in organizing the collection and analysis of data on the circumstances that account for individual differences in diet. It is suggested that an environment provides several alternatives for meeting nutrient requirements, corresponding to alternative methods of food getting. These alternatives are called "nutritional strategies." The environment, including both its physical and social aspects, also imposes constraints on the ability of families to follow particular nutritional strategies. A family's strategy depends on its ability and desire to exploit particular methods of food-getting. Data from a small agricultural community in Mexico are used to illustrate this approach. Several alternative strategies are outlined and are seen to be based on differential use of food potentially available to families from (i) subsistence agriculture, (ii) purchase, and (iii) gathering of wild foods. A focus on alternative nutritional strategies emphasizes the importance of dietary variation, which, at the same time, allows for an understanding of the effects of different variables on food choice.

"Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal Growth and Nutrition." A.R. Bosley, J. R. Sibert, and R.G. Newcombe. Arch. Dis. Child., 56 (9): 727 (1981). Standard anthropometric measurements were made on 320 term neonates to investigate the influence of smoking on foetal growth and nutrition. Maternal height and triceps skinfold thickness were also measured. Of the 320 infants, 126 (39 per cent) were born to mothers who smoked. Maternal triceps skinfold thickness was significantly smaller in smoking mothers. A correlation existed between maternal and infant triceps skinfold thickness. Measurements of infant growth, birth weight, occipito-frontal circumference, and crown-to-heel length were significantly smaller when corrections were made for maternal triceps skinfold thickness, height, and social class. While these data do not exclude a nutritional mechanism for the effect of maternal smoking on the foetus, the major growth-retarding effects remain after corrections for this. The reduction in occipito-frontal circumference in infants of smoking mothers and its possible significance is stressed.

"Evaluation of Lactational Performance of Navajo Women." N.F. Butte and D.H. Calloway. Am J. Clin.. Nutr., 34: 2210 (1981). The effect of suboptimal maternal nutrition on the lactational performance of 23 Navajo women was studied in terms of milk volume, milk composition, and infant growth The mean milk volume produced by 10 Navajo women was 634 ± 113 ml/24 h after approximately one month of lactation. The content of protein, lactose, and lipid were within normal limits. Retinol and carotene content were 32.9 ± 15.7 and 19.7 ± 6.3 m g/dl, respectively. Milk folacin averaged 56.4 ± 23.9 ng/ml. The mean contents of zinc, iron, and copper were 2.8 ± 1.1, 0.8 ± 0.6, and 0.3 ± 0.2 mg/litre respectively. Despite evidence of suboptimal nutriture among these Navajo women, lactational performance was adequate in terms of infant growth, milk volume, and milk composition with the exception of vitamin A, which was lower than normal.

"Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy. Part l: A Review." A. Leader, K.H. Wong, and M. Deitel. Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 125 (6): 545 (1981). Maternal under-nutrition may result in a greater deprivation of the foetus than has previously been believed. The infant not only may be "light for dates" but also has an increased risk of perinatal disability or death secondary to gross neurologic and developmental abnormalities. This article reviews current knowledge of the energy, protein, iron, vitamin, sodium, and calcium requirements in pregnancy, with special reference to the management of the underweight and overweight pregnant woman.

"Anthropometric and Biochemical Changes during Pregnancy in Asian and European Mothers Having Well Grown Babies." J.G. Bissenden, P.H. Scott, J. Hallum, H.N. Mansfield, P. Scott, and B.A. Wharton. Brit. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 88 (10): 992 (1981 ). At the hospital where this study was carried out, about a third of all mothers are Asian. Although generally they have smaller and lighter babies, many Asian mothers achieve standards of intrauterine growth similar to those of European mothers. This paper describes the nutritional status of Asian and European mothers having well-grown babies. Twenty-eight European and 11 Asian mothers, who had a normal past obstetric history and a normal present pregnancy resulting in a well-grown baby, were studied throughout pregnancy. At each visit, weight, skinfold thickness, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured and biochemical measurements of nutritional status were performed (serum albumin, transferrin and alkaline ribonuclease, plasma amino acids, and nitrogen partition of urine). The Asian mothers were fatter than the European mothers at booking and put on more fat during the second trimester. At the same time, the biochemical tests suggested that the Asian mothers had a higher plane of nutrition. It seems that if the Asian mothers are well nourished in the second trimester, they can achieve a standard of intrauterine growth comparable to that of the Europeans.

"Vitamin D Supplements Enhance Weight Gain and Nutritional Status in Pregnant Asians." J.D. Maxwell, L. Ang, O.G. Brooke, and 1. R. Brown. Brit. J. Obstet Gynaecol., 88 (10): 987 (19811. In a double-blind trial of supplementary vitamin D (1,000 i.u. daily) administered in the last trimester of pregnancy to Asian women living in London, supplemented mothers gained weight faster (63.3 g/day) than those in the control group (46.4 g/day) and at term had significantly higher plasma levels of retinol-binding protein and thyroid-binding pre-albumin, indicating better protein-calorie nutrition. Maternal weight gain correlated with postpartum levels of both retinol-binding protein and thyroid-binding pre-albumin. Almost twice as many infants in the unsupplemented group weighed under 2,500 9 at birth and had significantly lower retinol-binding protein levels than infants of supplemented mothers. The nutritional benefits of supplementation provide further support for the routine administration of vitamin D to all British Asians during pregnancy.

"Human Milk Feeding in Premature Infants: Protein, Fat, and Carbohydrate Balances in the First Two Weeks of Life." S.A. Atkinson, M.H. Bryan, and G.H. Anderson. J Pediat., 99 (4): 617 11981). The nutritional adequacy of the premature infant's own mother's milk was assessed during the first two weeks of life. Studies were carried out in three groups ((n = 8) of infants of less than 1,300 g birth weight, matched for gestational age and weight, and fed either pooled breast milk (PBM), their mothers' own milk, or infant formula (SMA20 or SMA24). Macro-nutrient balances at the end of the first and second postnatal weeks demonstrated differences in nitrogen and lipid absorption and retention between groups. Nitrogen retentions (mg/kg/day) were similar to normal foetal accretion rates only in the PT and SMA24 groups. Fat absorption was poorest from the heat-sterilized PBM (average of 64.0 per cent of intake) when compared to PT (88.2 per cent) and SMA groups (83.3 per cant). Average gross and metabolizable energy intakes were similar among groups. Nutritional status as measured by plasma total protein and albumin concentrations and weight gain tended to be poorest in the PBM-fed infants. It was concluded that either PT milk or infant formula of a composition similar to SMA24 are more appropriate than pooled banked milk for feeding the premature infant during the first two weeks of life.

"Current Maternal Attitudes to Infant Feeding Methods." M.L. Lyon, G, Chilver, D.G. White, and A. Woollett. Child Care Health Dev., 7 (3): 145 (1981). Mothers' feeding practices and their attitudes to breast and bottle feeding were investigated. Sixty-four per cent started to breast-feed and 35 per cent continued past two months, a continuation rate which is higher than previously reported. Also higher than previously reported was the proportion of working-class women breast-feeding. This may reflect a current trend. Most women decided on their infant-feeding technique early in pregnancy, and 80 per cent followed that decision. For those who changed their minds about feeding practice postnatally, and for those who were initially undecided, the hospital was influential. Analysis showed that women found breast-feeding more pleasurable and less restricting than they had anticipated. The results are discussed in relation to attempts to encourage breast-feeding.

Congress of food science and technology

The Sixth World Congress of Food Science and Technology will be held in Dublin, Ireland, 18-23 September 1983, at the Royal Dublin Society, organized by the Institute of Food Science and Technology of Ireland under the sponsorship of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (lUFoST).

The congress will have as its theme "Development- Welfare - Peace" and accordingly as its ultimate objective the application of science and technology to human needs. For this reason, special attention will be given to problems of the developing countries and the influence of social, economic, cultural, and political factors on the production, conservation, and processing of food and on human nutrition. The programme will be concerned with the most recent advances in fundamental aspects of food science and technology; hew developments in the production of animal, fish, poultry, and plant foods; the basic sciences; biotechnology in the food industry; process engineering and plant design; the conservation of energy; the consumers' perception of the quality of food; additives, contaminants, and the safety of foods; the nutritive value of traditional diets; nutrition in relation to health and disease, mental development, and aging; nutrition information and education; and food and nutrition policy.

The International Union of Food Science and Technology is a voluntary non-profit-making association of national organizations, one from each country, each one representative of food scientists and technologists in that country.

General Information

Congress Language. The official working language will be English. Whispered group translation in French, Russian, German, and Spanish may be arranged.

Congress Secretariat Requests for registration and other forms and all correspondence should be sent to: Sixth World Congress of Food Science and Technology Congresses & Exhibitions Ltd. 44 Northumberland Road Dublin 4, Ireland Telephone: 01-688244 Telex: 31098-ETA-EI

Registration Information. The registration fee is lR£165 if paid before 31 May 1983; thereafter, it will be IR£200. Payment of registration entitles the registrant to admission to all sessions, and the full congress documentation, which will include the texts of all invited lectures and all short communications.

Travel and Accommodation. Participants and accompanying persons will be offered air travel and accommodation arrangements at a cost which should represent a substantial saving over normal fares. For those delegates who wish to take the opportunity of spending a few extra days in Ireland, post-congress tours can be arranged.

Social Programme. An extensive social programme is planned for all participants at the congress. For those not attending the working sessions, guided tours of Dublin City and its surroundings and excursions to places of cultural and general interest will be included.

Academic Programme

The academic programme will consist of opening and closing plenary sessions, eighty sub-plenary lectures by invited speakers, joint symposia with international organizations on issues which concern the developing countries, workshops on specialist topics, and free-communication poster sessions. Rapporteurs will be present at all events, and a summary of their reports will be presented at the closing of the congress.

Contributions on all aspects of food science and technology are welcome and are now invited.


The sub-plenary invited lectures will be given in parallel sessions in the mornings. The programme is as follows:

1. Food Production

1.1. Animal Production
1.1.1. Climate and efficiency of animal production
1.1.2. Control of diseases in animal production
1.1.3. Genetic basis of milk and meat production
1.1.4. Animal nutrition
1.2. Animal Production Practices and Quality of Food
1.2.1. Milk for consumption and processing
1.2.2 Pork production and the quality of meat
1.2.3 Beef and lamb production and the quality of meat
1 2.4. Poultry production and the quality of meat
1.3. Fish
1.3.1. Conservation of fisheries
1.3.2. New sources of sea food
1.3.3. Catching, transport, and quality
1.3.4. Aquaculture
1.4. Plant Production
1.4.1. Climatic influences on fruits, vegetables, and cereal production
1.4.2. Quality of intensively produced crops
1.4.3. Advances in organic agriculture
1.5. Plant Production
1.5.1. Food from palm trees and oil plants
1.5.2. Developments in the production of rice
1.5.3. Novel sources of protein
1.5.4. Modern technology for the storage of crops
1.6. Socio-economic and Political Factors in Food Production
1.6.1. Economics of food and agriculture
1.6.2. Land reform and food production programmes
1.6.3. Investment in agricultural development in developing countries
1.6.4. Trading relationships and food production in developing countries
2. Food Conservation, Processing, and the Basic Sciences
2.1. Developments in Processing Operations
2.1.1. Thermal processing
2.1.2 Freezing and chilling
2.1.3. Dehydration and concentration
2.1.4. Fabricated and extruded foods
2.2. Basic Science- Food Products
2.2.1. Protein functionality and modification
2.2.2. The milk protein system
2.2.3. The muscle protein system
2.2.4. Plant proteins
2.3. Basic Science- Lipids and Carbohydrates
2.3.1. Advances in chemistry of plant lipids
2.3.2. Biosynthesis of milk lipids [enzymatic and chemical, leading to off-flavours)
2.3.4. Advances in the chemistry of complex polysaccharides
2.4. Physio-chemical Properties of Foods
2.4.1. Physical chemistry of food emulsions
2.4.2. Rheology of foods
2.4.3. Interactions between food constituents during processing
2.4.4. Food particle technology
2.5. Biotechnology in Food Processing
2.5.1. Single-cell protein
2.5.2. Biotechnology and food in developing countries
2.5.3. Biotechnology in the food industry in developed countries
2.5.4. Future prospects for biotechnology in the food industry
2.6. Energy Conservation in Food Processing
2.6.1. Energy audit techniques
2.6.2. Plant design
2.6.3. Comparison of energy expenditure in various food" processing operations
2.6.4. Development of alternative energy-saving technologies
2.7. Sensoric Properties of Foods
2.7.1, Developments in research on the flavour of foods
2.7.2. Developments in the texture of foods
2.7.3. Chemical structure and the perception of flavour
2.7.4. The consumers' perception of the quality of food
2.8. Food Processing in Developing Countries
2.8.1. Tropical food products
2.8.2. Food processing in developing countries
2.8.3. Human resource development in food science and technology- a sociological approach
2.8.4. Technology transfer to developing countries
3. Nutrition
3.1. Diet and Disease
3.1.1. Dietary composition end the diseases of affluence
3.1.2. Salt and hypertension
3.1.3. Dietary factors and carcinogenesis
3.1.4. Energy balance and overnutrition
3.2. Special Dietary Requirements
3.2.1. Maternal nutrition and reproductive performances
3.2.2. Infant feeding practices
3.2.3. Improvement of nutritional status formulation at home and village level
3.2.4. Special nutrition needs of the aged
3.3. Wholesomeness, Food Safety, and Food Technology
3.3.1. Food Industries response to problems of nutritive values of food etc.
3.3.2. Natural toxicants in foodstuffs
3.3.3. Microbiological safety of foods of animal origin
3.3.4. Food additive' and contaminants
3.4. Nutritional Issues in Developing Societies
3.4.1. Maternal diet and foetal development
3.4.2. Nutrition-infection interaction.
3.4.3. Nutrient deficiency stages: goitre, xerophthalmia, and anaemia
3.4.4. Nutrition and mental development
3.5. Nutrition Information and Education
3.5.1. The determination of human nutrition requirements
3.5.2. Nutrition education
3.5.3. Nutritional labelling
3.5.4. The effectiveness of nutritional education
3.6. Socio-economic and Political Factors and Improvement of Nutritional Status
3.6.1. Food and nutrition policy
3.6.2. Income distribution and nutritional status
3.6.3. Intervention programmes and nutrition status
3.6.4. Anthropological and cultural aspects of nutrition

Workshops and Symposia

Workshops and symposia will be held in the afternoons.
The programme will include the following:


IUFoST Information and Documentation Services (Dr. G. Dardenne, France)
Research Management (Dr. L.J. Rubin, Canada)
Developing Countries' Needs flog. E.R. Mendez, Jr., Mexico)
Education and Training (Dr. M. Fujimaki, Japan)
Consumer Attitudes towards Fresh Meat Wholesomeness (Dr. T A. Kenny, Ireland)
Influence of Food Technology on Catering/Food Service (Mr. G. Glew, England)
Health Certification and Trade (Dr. J. Hannan, Ireland) Dairy Technology (Mr. J. Phelan, Ireland)


Technology, Hunger, and Society (with the United Nations University) Food Handling Practices at the Household and Village Level (with the Food and Agriculture Organization) Technology in Developing Countries (with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)

Proposals for other workshops should include the name of the organizer, the topic to be discussed, an abstract of the subject matter (500 words), and names of other proposed participants. Proposals can be accepted only from registrants and must be received by the Congress Secretariat by 31 March 1983.

Free-contribution Poster Sessions

All free contributions will be as posters, with a short communication 11,000 words) which will be printed in the Proceedings. Poster sessions will be held in the afternoons.

Free contributions will be grouped according to the topics of the lecture programme, listed above, and contributors are invited to indicate the section to which their contribution should be assigned. The Academic Committee will be responsible for the final grouping.

All contributions must be typed in English on the Abstract Form, which can be obtained, together with instructions for authors, from the Congress Secretariat by applying for the Second Circular. Contributions can be accepted only from registrants and must be received by the Congress Secretariat by 31 March 1983

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