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News and notes

Anthropology of food and nutrition
International Foundation for Science (IFS)
Guidelines for Ph.D. training for candidates from developing countries
Research network for investigation of protein-energy requirements under conditions prevailing in developing countries
Conference on seasonal dimensions to rural poverty
Post-graduate training in food and nutrition planning
Invitation for research proposals
International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS)

 

Anthropology of food and nutrition

There is a growing interest in the contribution of anthropologists to food and nutrition problems in populations. The disciplines of anthropology and human nutrition differ in respect to content, language, methods, and theoretical orientation but have many interests in common. Both are concerned with food systems of societies and the consequences of change in the physical, biological, and social environments. These include the effects of natural disasters, political actions, migration, development, and economic change. Both approaches can benefit from exchange of ideas, viewpoints, and technique at the theoretical level and from practical collaboration at the field and programme level.

The Committee on Nutritional Anthropology (CNA) of the Society of Medical Anthropologists and the American Anthropological Association, was formed in 1974 to facilitate such an exchange. The CNA holds annual sessions at the American Anthropological Association meetings and sponsors symposia at these and other meetings. It also publishes a biannual newsletter, the Communicator. All persons interested in promoting communication and providing inter-connecting links between the behavioral sciences and other disciplines relating to nutrition are invited to join and support the CNA. Dues are US$5.00 for professional members and US$3.00 for students. All members receive the Communicator. Checks should be made payable to the Committee on Nutritional Anthropology and sent to Judith Goode, Secretary Treasurer, 7610 Montgomery Avenue, Melrose Park, Pennsylvania 19126, USA.

In 1977 the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES) created a Commission on the Anthropology of Food and Food Problems. This Commission has the mandate to "...encourage, support and stimulate analytical work on the practical as well as the conceptual concerns that food production, distribution and consumption generate in human societies" and to collaborate with other disciplines studying food. Long-range plans of the Commission include a publication programme of books, occasional papers, research reports, and newsletters. Correspondence concerning the Central Executive Committee should be addresed to Dr. R.S. Khare, University of Virginia, 303 Brooks Hall, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA. Correspondence concerning the European Committee should be addressed to Dr. Igor de Garine, "Pargade," Lasseube, 64290 Gan, France.

A committee on Nutritional Anthropology was established in 1979 by the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. Its charge is to convene a workshop on Nutritional Anthropology in the Global Community, to culminate in the publication of a book on the workshop's theme, and a Nutritional Anthropology Symposium at the Twelfth International Congress of Nutrition. The Chairman of this committee is Dr. Gretel Pelto, U-17, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268, USA.

There is considerable overlapping in the membership of these three groups, and they plan to co-operate closely. Social scientists, nutritionists, and food scientists who are interested are urged to participate in their activities.

 

International Foundation for Science (IFS)

Research Grants

The International Foundation for Science is an organization that has been created to support young, promising scientists and technologists in their research work in developing countries. The support is provided in the form of grants, scientific advice, and arrangements for international contacts.

Criteria for a research grant are the scientific quality and promise of the proposed research project and its relevance to the needs of the country concerned. To be eligible for a grant, an applicant must be native to, and carry out the research in, a developing country.

The grants are given to individual scientists or to a group of scientists, and are primarily intended to provide equipment, expendable supplies, and certain technical assistance for a specific project. The grants are fairly small; they do not usually exceed US$10,000, and the average grant amounts to between $6,000 and $6,500. Normally, a grant can be renewed up to four times.

Biology, Agriculture, and Technology

The Foundation's support is, for the time being, limited to seven priority areas that have been selected after thorough discussions with scientific councils and academies in developing countries. The priority areas are "aquaculture," "animal production," "vegetables, oil seeds and fruits," "mycorrhiza and afforestation problems," "fermentation, methods for food preparation," "natural products," and "rural technology."

Workshops

An important kind of support, complementary to the financial, is the arrangement of workshops for IFS grantees working on related problems. Scientists in developing countries sometimes have good contacts with research institutes in industrialized countries, but may have no, or very few, contacts with colleagues working under similar conditions. Regional workshops on a particular subject are one way to break this isolation.

This line of activity is also being followed up by initial attempts to create affinity groups of IFS grantees with different specializations within a wider scientific field. A closer contact among such scientists should enable a more rational planning of research efforts.

Scientific Advisers

Another asset of the Foundation is its international panel of experienced scientists within the different priority areas. These advisers assist the Foundation with the evaluation of grant applications, and with the overall assessment of the scientific quality of the supported projects. In many cases they also provide direct assistance to the grantees through personal visits or by correspondence.

Organization

The Foundation was formed in 1972, and the first grants were given in 1974. It is a non-governmental organization based on scientific academies and research councils in 44 countries, of which two-thirds are in developing and one-third in industrialized parts of the world.

The Foundation is governed by an international board of trustees, and has its secretariat located in Stockholm, Sweden.

Finance

The Foundation's budget for 1978 was US$1.2 million. At present nine countries-and Unesco-are financially sponsoring IFS. The contributions are normally government grants, given either directly or through a national Member Organization.

Further Information

The Foundation's working languages are English and French; enquiries are welcome in either of these languages.

Informational material and application forms are available from the IFS Secretariat, Sibyllegatan 47, S-114 42 Stockholm, Sweden.

 

Guidelines for Ph.D. training for candidates from developing countries

The Fifth International Congress of Food Science and Technology held in Kyoto, Japan, in September 1978 included a round table discussion on training for research management in developing countries that with further editing produced the following guidelines for Ph.D. training, applicable to all of the disciplines of nutrition and food science.

1. Research training at Ph.D. level on a specialized topic may not be the most useful intellectual preparation to meet the needs of developing countries, but account must be taken of the strong social and political pressures that encourage candidates to proceed to the Ph.D. degree.

2. Before undertaking Ph.D. programmes, graduates with bachelor's or master's degrees should work in their own countries for a period, preferably in the food industry, in order to acquire some understanding of their country's needs.

3. The Ph.D. programme should not commence until satisfactory knowledge and practical skills in basic subjects have been demonstrated.

4. The research topic selected should be as directly relevant as possible to the country's needs or potential and an ultimate practical objective developed by personal involvement.

5. The research programme should be structured so that research can be continued with facilities and resources available in the developing country.

6. Supervisory staff should be dedicated to the goal of assisting developing countries in an immediate and practical way.

7. Close liaison is desirable between the host university and the home country, preferably at university department level, and a real awareness of needs and resources at both places. Programmes of joint supervision, two-country programmes, secondment of staff, and other mechanisms are then possible.

8. The most promising mechanism seems to be joint supervision in a two-country programme such as the following: a candidate spends the first period of the Ph.D. programme at a host university in a developed country, then works for an extended period on a local problem in his own country, and spends a final period at the host university.

9. Wherever appropriate resources exist, the development of effective Ph.D. training within developing countries should be encouraged, particularly by regional cooperative planning.

 

Research network for investigation of protein-energy requirements under conditions prevailing in developing countries

The UNU World Hunger Programme has established a network of units co-operating in its research programme on protein-energy requirements described in the Appendix to the publication Protein-Energy Requirements under Conditions Prevailing in Developing Countries: Current Knowledge and Research Needs. These units are as follows:
- Nutrition Section, University of So Paulo, So Paulo, Brazil. Principal investigator: Prof. Dutra Oliveira
- Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago, Chile. Principal investigator: Prof. Enrique Yez
- Department of Pediatrics, University of Valle, Call, Colombia. Principal investigator: Dr. Luis Fajardo
- Division of Biology and Human Nutrition, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigators: Drs. Benjamin Torun and Fernando Viteri
- Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. Principal investigator: Dr. Jin Soon Ju
- Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Philippine National Science Development Board, Manila, Philippines. Principal investigator: Dr. Carmen Intengan
- Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan. Dr. Goro Inoue
- Dunn Nutritional Laboratory, Cambridge, UK. Dr. Roger Whitehead
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Dr. Vernon Young

The last three are co-operating without direct financial support from the UN University.

Investigators in developing countries interested in this programme can write directly to Dr. William Rand, Research Co-ordinator, UNU World Hunger Programme, MIT, Room 56 - 301, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

 

Conference on seasonal dimensions to rural poverty

A conference on Seasonal Dimensions to Rural Poverty was held at the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex University and organized jointly with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The conference examined how seasonal aspects of disease, nutrition, and rural economy relate to rural poverty in developing countries. Presentations included specialized papers on climate, energy balance, vital events, individual tropical disease, nutrition, rural economy, and women, and also multidisciplinary case studies of tropical rural areas from the Gambia, Nigeria, Mali, Kenya, Tanzania, India, and Bangladesh. While care is needed in generalizing, the evidence suggested that for agriculturalists in the tropics the worst times of the year are the wet seasons, typically marked by a concurrence of food shortages, high demands for agricultural work, high exposure to infections- especially diarrhoeas, malaria, and skin diseases-loss of body weight, low birth weights, high neonatal mortality, poor child care, malnutrition, sickness, and indebtedness. In this season poor and weak people, especially women, are vulnerable to deprivation and to becoming poorer and weaker.

Seasonal analysis is easily left out in rural planning. When applied, it suggests priorities in research, and indicates practical policy measures for health, for the family, for agriculture, and for government planning and administration. It is hoped to develop a centre of information on seasonal health and nutrition programmes. Anyone with information on such programmes already in existence is invited to write to Robert Chambers or Richard Longhurst at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RE, Sussex, England.

The conference report, Seasonal Dimensions to Rural Poverty, by Robert Chambers, Richard Longhurst, David Bradley, and Richard Feacham, Institute of Development Studies Discussion Paper 142, is available from: IDS Communications, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RE, Sussex, England. Price, 1.

 

Post-graduate training in food and nutrition planning

The Central University of Venezuela's third food and nutrition planning training course, leading to a master's degree, will start in early 1980 and end in mid-1981. The programme-designed for graduates in agronomy, anthropology, economics, education, food technology, medicine, nutrition and dietetics, pharmacy, planning, public health, sociology, and related disciplines-is intended to prepare them to include aspects of nutrition planning in their own professional activities. For further information, applicants, who should be proficient in Spanish, should contact Professor Elvira de Ramirez, Apartado 17.186, Caracas, 101, Venezuela; telephone Caracas 751-4957.

 

Invitation for research proposals

Five food and nutrition policy issues which should be addressed immediately have emerged from the UNU World Hunger Programme's Advisory Committee's discussions.

1. Analysis of both micro- and macro-economic, nutritional, and other implications of large-scale national consumer food subsidies (e.g., in Sri Lanka) as compared with tightly targeted ones (e.g., age group food distribution programmes).

2. Policy, financial, and other implications of building community organizations for achieving food and nutrition objectives. Comparative studies of country experiences are required on this subject.

3. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of health and/ or nutrition intervention programmes in selected countries, including attention to the need for evaluation methodologies relevant to field conditions, and analysis of factors determining "success" or "failure." This subject may lead to one or more workshops itself.

4. Analysis of the food consumption effects of what might be called interventional (or global) forces (e.g., grain trade practices, capital flows, energy prices) that are largely beyond the control of individual developing countries

5. Evaluation of existing data for food and nutrition policy analysis. There is a need to assess manageable methodologies and try to arrive at some minimum adequate data base for policy analysis in different situations.

Research proposals addressing any aspect of these issues and relating to individual countries or groups of countries are invited from qualified persons in developing countries. The proposals, which should be informal in nature and of one or two Pages, should be submitted to the UNU World Hunger Programme Office in Tokyo. They will form the basis for further correspondence and possibly formal proposals.

 

International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS)

The commissions and committees of the International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS) have published a directory describing its history, giving its statutes, and listing its adhering and affiliated bodies, its publications, and the membership of its commissions and committees. The Secretary General of IUNS is Dr. Dorothy E. Hollingsworth. The next International Congress of Nutrition will be held in San Diego, California, USA in 1981.

IUNS co-operates closely with the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST), and some of the following committees and working groups are joint or have IUFoST representatives on them. Some of these committees and working groups are carrying out activities in priority areas of the UNU World Hunger Programme and will receive UNU support for them.

Officers and Council
Officers
Nevin S. Scrimshaw (USA), President
Ratko Buzina (Yugoslavia), First Vice-President
Jos E. Dutra de Oliveira (Brazil), Second Vice-President
Dorothy E. Hollingsworth (UK), Secretary General
J.A. Campbell (Canada), Treasurer
C. Gopalan (India), Past President
Bjorn Isaksson (Sweden), Past Secretary General

Council Members
Mamdouh K. Gabr (Egypt)
Joseph G.A.J. Hautvast (Netherlands)
Toshio Oiso (Japan)
Ade Omololu (Nigeria)
A. Schurch (Switzerland)
Tasho A. Tashev (Bulgaria)

Commissions and Committees (March 1979-February 1982)*

The following are the names of those invited to serve as committee members. Acceptance or authorization to serve is still pending for a few of those listed.

COMMISSION I: Nomenclature, Procedures and
Standards (1966)
Elsie M. Widdowson (UK), Chairman
Committee I/1: Nomenclature (1966)

Charge: Conduct an international survey to provide a tabulation of present usage in nutritional terminology for nutrients and micronutrients. In co-operation with IUPAC, make recommendations regarding nutritional nomenclature. S.R. Ames (USA), Chairman H. Aly (Egypt) W.G. Jaffe (Venezuela) T. Moore (UK) E.C. Vieira (Brazil) R. Wenger (Australia) K. Yasumoto (Japan)

Committee I/4: Food Standards (1966)

Charge: Provide an independent professional monitoring and evaluation of existing international programmes for the development of food standards and disseminate the results.
A.L. Forbes (USA),
Chairman V. Adamovic (Yugoslavia)
A. Brincker (Denmark)
J.F. Chavez (Venezuela)
I.W. Eegerdingk (Netherlands)
E. Mendez (Mexico) ( IU FoST)
A. E. Olszyna-Marzys (Guatemala)
Margaret Pope (Canada)
A. Pronczuk (Poland)
P.A. Rosness (Norway)

Committee I/5: Recommended Dietary Allowances (1966)

Charge: Publish an up-to-date tabulation and analysis of the RDAs of different countries.
A.S. Truswell (Australia),
Chairman G.H. Beaton (Canada)
D.S.M. Chit (Burma)
T. Kukui (Japan)
H. Haenel (GDR)
S. Hejda (Czechoslovakia)
E. Morava (Hungary)
J. Petersen (Norway)
Joan M.L. Stephen (UK)

Committee I/7: Evaluation of Protein Foods (1969, renamed 1976)

Charge: Complete the updating of the monograph on evaluation of protein quality and encourage its international use.
R. Bressani (Guatemala), Chairman
H. Araya Lopez (Chile)
A.E. Bender (UK)
B.O. Eggum (Denmark)
F.M. Lajolo (Brazil)
J.M. McLaughlan (Canada)
H. Rafalski (Poland)
L.D. Satterlee (USA)

Committee I/8: Biological Evaluation of Fat (1976)

Charge: Develop and disseminate recommendations for the evaluation of the biological value of various fats and oils. Roslyn B. Alfin-Slater (USA), Chairman
J. Beare-Rogers (Canada)
I. Goranov (Bulgaria)
I.M. Gurr (UK)
T. Kaneda (Japan)
A.J. Vergroesen (Netherlands)
M. Nesterin (USSR)
G. Rocquelin (France)

Committee I/8: Nutrition and Toxicology (1976)

Charge: Convene a workshop on the effects of malnutrition in response to drug and toxic substances.
A.E.M. McLean (UK),
Chairman E.A. Bababunmi (Nigeria)
R. Briski (Yugoslavia)
D. Henschler (FRG)
L. Herborg (Denmark)
P. Newberne (USA)
A. Szokolay (Czechoslovakia)
A. Yoshida (Japan)

Committee I/10: Techniques for Measuring the Value of
Foods for Man (1979)

Charge: Review techniques for the measurement of the nutrients and other constituents in food in relation to the assessment of the nutritional value of foods for man; make recommendations regarding the most appropriate techniques to use; and identify areas where methodological or other studies need to be carried out in order to improve the assessment of nutritional value.
D.A.T. Southgate (UK),
Chairman Mitsue H. Bicudo (Brazil)
A. Dahlquist (Sweden)
B.S. Narasinga Rao (India)
J.C. Sanahuja (Argentina)
J.N. Thompson (Canada)
G. Varela (Spain)
H. Fukuba (Japan)

Committee I /11: Human Protein-Energy Requirements
(1979)

Charge: Evaluate new data on human protein-energy requirements as they become available and advise on their practical significance.
B. Torun (Guatemala),
Chairman Xue-cun Chen (PR China)
L.F. Fajardo (Colombia)
L. Garby (Denmark)
G. Inoue (Japan)
A. O'Donnell (Argentina)
K. Tontisirin (Thailand)
V.R. Young (USA)
R.G. Whitehead (UK)

COMMISSION II: Operational Programmes (1966)
J.P. Kevany (Ireland), Chairman
Committee II/2: Nutritional Surveys and Surveillance
(1966, renamed 1973)

Charge: Review of experience with nutrition survey procedures in various countries as a basis for recommendations of feasible methodology of predicting acute and chronic nutritional needs.
K. Ahmad (Bangladesh), Chairman
J. Aranda-Pastor (Guatemala)
D.H. Buss (UK)
Chi-Yuan Chou (PRChina)
J.M. Gurney (Jamaica)
W. Keller (WHO)
M.Z. Nichaman (USA)
Maija Pekkarinen (Finland)
W.D.A. Perera (Sri Lanka)
J. Perisse (FAO)
J. Sznajd (Poland)

Committee II/4: Economic Policy and Human Nutrition
(1973, renamed 1976, 1979)

Charge: Develop a book manuscript on the subject of economic policy and human nutrition.
Margaret R. Biswas (UK), Chairman
M. Elgabaly (Egypt)
P. Pinstrup-Andersen (Denmark)
P. Singer (Brazil)
S. Soemardjan (Indonesia)
L. Taylor (USA)

Committee II/5: Nutrition and Fertility (1976)

Charge: Evaluate and disseminate information on interrelationships between nutrition and fertility.
F.T. Sai (Ghana), Chairman
B.K. Adadevoh (Nigeria)
H. L. Delgado (Guatemala)
R. Karim (Bangladesh)
A. Mitra (India)
Dorothy L. Nortman (USA)
F.W. Rosa (Lebanon)

Committee II/6: Nutrition and Physical Performance
(1976, renamed 1979)

Charge: Provide a summary of knowledge and stimulate research regarding nutrition, physical fitness, and physical performance through a workshop on the subject, and publish the proceedings. Jana Parizkova (Czechoslovakia), Chairman P-O Astrand (Sweden) R.B. Bradfield (USA) J.V.G.A. Durnin (UK) Anna Ferro-Luzzi (Italy) Maria Patrocinio E. de Guzman (Philippines) V.A. Rogozkin (USSR) F.L. Vichi (Brazil) F. Viteri (Guatemala) W. Wirths (FRG)

Committee II/7: Food and Nutrition Policy (1979)
J.M. Bengoa (Venezuela), Chairman
S. Chafkin (USA)
Wilma Z. Freire (Ecuador)
R. Korte (FRG)
K.W. Kwofie (Zambia)
J. Lambert (New Guinea)
R. Longhurst (UK)
P. Lunven (FAO)
S. Oldrich (Czechoslovakia)
Omawale (Guyana)
Sajogyo (Indonesia)
Priyani E. Soysa (Sri Lanka)
T. Uribe Mosquera (Colombia)

Committee II/8: Nutritional Anthropology (1979)

Charge: Convene a workshop on nutritional anthropology in the global community to culminate in the publication of a book on the workshop's theme, followed. by a nutritional anthropology symposium at the XI International Congress of Nutrition.

Gretel Pelto (USA), Chairman
Mary Douglas (UK)
I. de Garine (Belgium)
Angela Gilliam (New Guinea)
Adel P. den Hartog (Netherlands)
Norge W. Jerome (USA)
R. Khare (India)
Maria de Lenero (Mexico)
Filomina Steady (Sierra Leone)
Maria Angelica Tagle (Chile) (UNU)
L.A. Vargas (Mexico)

Committee II/9: Nutrition in Primary Health Care (1979)

Charge: Define the scope of nutritional activities undertaken in primary health care in different parts of the world; draw up guidelines for selection of nutrition activities of training of appropriate workers.
D.B. Jelliffe (USA), Chairman
M. Amador (Cuba)
I. Beghin (Belgium)
M. Behar (WHO)
G.J. Ebrahim (UK)
W. Fougere (Haiti)
J.P. Greaves (UNICEF)
Y. Hofvander (Sweden)
T.N. Maletnlema (Tanzania).
H. Rejeb (Tunisia)
J.E. Rohde (Indonesia)
P.M. Shah (India)
Wanda Szotowa (Poland)

Committee II/10: Education of the Public (1969, formerly Committee V/10)

Charge: Develop policies and guidelines for nutrition education of the public.
Wenche Barth Eide (Norway),
Chairman Maria Celeste Bustillo (Colombia)
U. Jonsson (Sweden)
Corinne Kumar D'Souza (India)
T.J. Marchione (USA)
Beatrice V. de Mel (Sri Lanka)
G. Merikas (Greece)
Olyzia Mgaza (Tanzania)
R. Orraca-Tetteh (Ghana)
Maria Angelique Savane (Senegal)
Soekirman (Indonesia)
Marja Liisa Swantz (Finland)

COMMISSION III: Human Development with Special
Reference to the Mother and Child
(1966, renamed 1976)
M. Behar (WHO), Chairman

Committee III/1: Standards of Growth and Physical Development (1966, renamed 1973, 1979)

Charge: Evaluate national and international standards of growth and development and make recommendations leading to greater comparability in the interpretation of anthropometric and developmental data.
F. Falkner (USA), Chairman
L. Chen (Bangladesh)
J. Jordan (Cuba)
P. Karlberg (Sweden)
Genevieve Masse (France)
R. Ramos-Galvan (Mexico)
A. Shakir (Iraq)
H. Wako (Japan)
N. Wolanski (Poland)

Committee III/2: Mental Development and Behavior (1966, renamed 1973)

Charge: Provide a fresh appraisal of the significance of current research findings and identify needed further research on nutrition, mental development, and behavior.
J. Brozek (USA), Chairman
P.R. Dasen (Switzerland)
Marie Clotilde Ferreira (Brazil)
R.D. Griesel (South Africa)
Sally McGregor (Jamaica)
B.O. Osuntokun (Nigeria)
E. Pollitt (Peru)
Marian Radke-Yarrow (USA)
R. Rajalakshmi (India)
J.S. Smart (UK)
Keiya Tada (Japan)
Maria Wagner (FRG)

Committee III/4: Protein-Energy Malnutrition (1969, formerly Committee I/2, renamed 1979)

Vinodini Reddy (India), Chairman
H.A. Addy (Ghana)
M. Gebre-Medhin (Sweden)
A.A. Khan (Zambia)
K.W. King (USA)
Jane Kusin (Netherlands)
T. Kusunoki (Japan)
D. Picou (Trinidad)
Ousa Thanangkul (Thailand)

Committee III/5: Vitamin A Deficiency (1973, renamed 1979)

Charge: Evaluate current status of vitamin A deficiency as a global problem in public health nutrition and evaluate progress toward its alleviation.

D. Karyadi (Indonesia), Chairman
G. Arroyave (Guatemala)
E.M. DeMaeyer (WHO)
Y. Muto (Japan)
Antoinette Pirie (UK)
Maria Jose Roncada (Brazil)
L.J. Teply (UNICEF)
Barbara A. Underwood (USA)

Committee III/6: Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation (1976, renamed 1979) Charge: Evaluate current data on nutritional requirements in pregnancy and lactation and their consequences for fetus and infant, and disseminate relevant conclusions and research recommendations.
Jamal K. Harfouche (Lebanon), Chairman
A. Arteaga (Chile)
Maria Barna (Hungary)
O.A. Darwish (Egypt)
P.K. Devi (India)
A. Lechtig (Guatemala)
D.J. Naismith (UK)
Y. Niiyama (Japan)
H.B. Wong (Singapore)

COMMISSION IV: Health Problems of Special Nutritional Importance (1966, renamed 1969, 1979)

V.A. Shaternikov (USSR), Chairman

Committee IV/1: Diabetes, Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease (1966, renamed 1976, 1979)

Charge: Develop position papers on the interrelationship between diet and the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and on the health significance of obesity.
G. Debry (France), Chairman
L. Balabansky (Bulgaria)
R.J.J. Hermus (Netherlands)
E. Jequier (Switzerland)
N. Kimura (Japan)
K.R. Norum (Norway)
Katarina Osancova (Czechoslovakia)
Antonia Polychronopoulou-Trichopoulou (Greece)
W.B. Szostak (Poland)
T.B. Van Itallie (USA)

Committee IV/3: Iron Deficiency Anaemia (1966, renamed 1969, 1979)

Charge: Bring together in book form present knowledge about iron absorption from different diets in different parts of the world, the feasibility of fortifying local foods with iron, and the effects of various dietary factors.
L. Hallberg (Sweden), Chairman
T.H. Bothwell (South Africa)
P.R. Dallman (USA)
R.F. Florentino (Philippines)
Y. Kawakita (Japan)
M. Layrisse (Venezuela)
S.K. Sood (India)
A. Stekel (Chile)

Committee IV/4: Nutrition and Infection (1973)

Charge: Prepare and publish authoritative summaries of research progress and recommendations for further investigations in the disciplinary areas of Subcommittees IV/4A and IV/4B. L.J. Mata (Costa Rica), Chairman

Subcommittee IV/4A: Nutrition and Immunity (1979)

Charge: Prepare and publish authoritative summaries of research progress and recommendations for further investigations in the disciplinary area of the nutritional effects of infection.
R.K. Chandra (Canada), Chairman
A. Aschkenasy (France)
H. Coovadia (South Africa)
W.P. Faulk (UK)
P. Kulapongs (Thailand)
Charlotte G. Neumann (USA)
V. Ramalingaswami (India)
Liana Schlesinger (Chile)

Subcommittee IV/4B: Nutritional Effects of Infection (1979)

Charge: Prepare and publish authoritative summaries of research progress and recommendations for further investigations in the disciplinary area of nutrition and immunity.
W.R. Beisel (USA), Chairman
J.D.L. Hansen (South Africa)
M. Lee (Korea)
P. Migasena (Thailand)
T. Moraes e Santos (Brazil)
L.G. Mayoral (Colombia)
M.M. Rahaman (Bangladesh)
R.E. Schneider (Guatemala)

Committee IV/5: Trace Elements in Human Nutrition
(1973, renamed 1979)

Charge: Develop a summary of the status of current knowledge of the clinical and public health significance of trace minerals relative to differences in populations, diets and environmental circumstances. A.S. Prasad (USA), Chairman

B. Belavady (India)
H. Danbara (Japan)
E. Kerpel-Fronius (Hungary)
V. Kovalsky (USSR)
W. Mertz (USA)
J. Parizek (Czechoslovakia)
M. Piscator (Sweden)
H. A. Ronaghy (Iran)
B.G. Shah (Canada)
E.J. Underwood (Australia)
Committee IV/6: Functional Consequences of Vitamin
Deficiencies (1973, renamed 1979)

Charge: Assess the functional significance of subclinical biochemically identifiable deficiencies of vitamins.
G. Brubacher (Switzerland), Chairman
Mahtab S. Bamji (India)
A.O. Campana (Brazil)
D. R. Fraser (UK)
H.E. Sauberlich (USA)
V.B. Spricev (USSR)

Committee IV/7: Nutrition and the Brain (1979)

Charge: Bring together an authoritative summary of current information on the effects of diet on the brain and encourage future research in this field.
R.J. Wurtman (USA), Chairman
G.H. Anderson (Canada)
A. Carlsson (Sweden)
G.L. Gessa (Italy)
L.A. Ordonez (Venezuela)
L. Sokoloff (USA)

Committee IV/8: Nutrition and Cancer (1979)

Charge: Develop an authoritative summary of the present status of nutrition-cancer interrelationships and make research suggestions.
K.K. Carroll (Canada), Chairman
J.H. Cummings (UK)
J-A Gustafsson (Sweden)
J. Higginson (France)
Doris M. Hilker (USA)
T. Hirayama (Japan)
H. Tulinius (Iceland)

Committee IV/9: Nutrition and Aging (1979)

Charge: Convene a workshop for the purpose of developing a monograph on the status of present knowledge of nutrition and aging and make research recommendations.
H.N. Munro (USA), Chairman
A.V. Everitt (Australia)
A.N. Exton-Smith (UK)
R.C. Greulich (USA)
Daniela Schlettwein-Gasell (Switzerland)
B. Steen (Sweden)

COMMISSION V: Education and Training (1966, renamed 1976, 1979)

F. Fidanza (Italy), Chairman
Committee V/1: Schools of Medicine (1976, renamed 1979)
Charge: Promote nutrition training in schools of medicine.
W.A. Krehl (USA), Chairman
L. Hambraeus (Sweden)
J.S. Ju (Korea)
D.S. McLaren (UK)
J.C. Somogyi (Switzerland)
A. Valyasevi (Thailand)
H. Yoshimura (Japan)

Committee V/2: Schools of Agriculture and Veterinary

Science (1976) (IUNS/IUFoST)
Charge: Develop specific recommendations for the food science and nutrition knowledge that shall be part of the training of workers in the agricultural and veterinary sciences.

L.L. Lloyd (Canada) (IUNS), Co-Chairman
J.H. Jensen (Denmark) (IUFoST), Co-Chairman
T.K. Ewer (UK)
N. Deomampo (Philippines)
R. Ferrando (France)
T. Jakubczyk (Poland)
A. Kudrievzaw (USSR)
P. Kuguru (Kenya)
A. Lam-Sanchez (Brazil)
E.T. Mertz (USA)
V. Nagarajan (India)
H. Naito (Japan)
V. Oyenuga (Nigeria)
Judith Swartz (Netherlands)

Committee V/3: Schools of Food Science and Technology (1966) (IUNS/IUFoST)

Charge: Provide specific recommendations for the balanced teaching of nutrition in the training of food sciences and technologists.

Z. Berk (Israel) (IUNS), Co-Chairman
M. Fujimaki (Japan) (IUFoST), Co-Chairman
S. Bruin (Netherlands)
C. Cantarelli (Italy)
J.C. Cheftel (France)
C.P. Natarajan (India)
W. Powrie (Canada)
E.J. Rolfe (UK)
B.S. Schweigert (USA)
V.C. Sgarbieri (Brazil)
R. Tannous (Lebanon)

Committee V/4: Schools of Dietetics and Home Science (1966, renamed 1969, 1979)
(IUNS/IUFoST)

Charge: Promote nutrition and training in schools of dietetics and home science.
Miriam Chavez (Mexico) (IUNS), Co-Chairman
Hilda N.W. Kigutha (Kenya) (IUFoST), Co-Chairman
Margaret E. Cameron (UK)
Freda Chale (FAO)
Durga Deulkar (India)
Elizabeth L. Empey (Canada)
Susana J. Icaza (Guatemala)
Kiku Murata (Japan)
Bole O.A. Osifo (Nigeria)

Committee V/5: Schools of Public Health (1966)

Charge: Promote nutrition and training in schools of public health.
Y. Gandra (Brazil), Chairman
H. Dupin (France)
Beatriz Faleriano (Venezuela)
K. Halder (India)
N. Hosoya (Japan)
G.J. Janz (Portugal)
Carmencita Salvosa-Loyola (Philippines)
R.C. Shank (USA)
R. Tarjan (Hungary)
Blanca Dolly Tejada (Colombia)
S. Valiente (Chile)

Committee V/8: Advanced Degrees in Nutrition Science
(1966, renamed 1979)
Charge: Promote improved degree standards.
S. Berger (Poland), Chairman
G. Briggs (USA)
D.Y. Dako (Ghana)
R.A. Edwards (Australia) (IUFOST)
D. Hotzel (FRG)
P.G. Tulpule (India)
J.C. Waterlow (UK)
Committee V/11:Education of Nurses and Auxiliary
Health Workers (1972, renamed 1979)

Charge: Define present status and content of nutrition education and training in schools of nursing, nursing auxiliaries and other auxiliary cadres including community workers and analyze survey results and publish guidelines to promote relevant changes in the nutrition content of nursing curricula.
E.F. Patrice Jelliffe (USA), Chairman
Kalyan Bagchi (WHO)
Marina Flores (Guatemala)
Helen F. McGrane (USA)
Eva Sarakikya (Tanzania)
Mary Anne Small (Brazil)
Kayoko Shimizu (Japan)
Manuelita Zephirin (Barbados)

Committee V/13: Schools of Dentistry (1979)

Charge: Promote nutrition and training in schools of dentistry.
K.G. Konig (Netherlands), Chairman
G.N. Davies (Australia)
N. Egg-Larsen (Norway)
N. Jenkins (UK)
B. Krasse (Sweden)
A.E. Nizel (USA)

COMMISSION W: Nutrition of Animals (1977)
C.C. Balch (UK), Chairman
Committee VI/3: Nutritional Requirements and Productivity of Fish (1969)

Charge: Encourage and participate in international scientific activities leading to increased integration and dissemination of knowledge of the nutritional requirements and productivity of fish.
T. Nose (Japan), Chairman
N. Castagnolli (Brazil)
C.B. Cowey (Scotland)
J.E. Halver (USA)
A.N. Kanidyev (USSR)
P. Luquet (France)
P. Menasveta (Thailand)
B.P.N. Satia (Cameroon)

Committee VI/4: Waste Utilization for Animal Production
(1969, renamed 1979)

Charge: Promote complete and efficient utilization of waste agro-industrial by-products and forestry wastes for production of animal products, particularly in the developing countries through organization of international workshops to identify specific problem areas, research needs and technology transfer.
W.J. Pigden (Canada), Chairman
A. Akkada (Egypt)
J. Buraczewski (Poland)
C.F. Chicco (Venezuela)
C. Devendra (Malaysia)
T. Klopfenstein (USA)
F. Sundstl (Norway)
Committee VI/7: Nutrition of Pigs (1977)

Charge: Encourage and Participate in international scientific activities leading to increased integration and dissemination of knowledge of the nutritional requirements of pigs.
R. Braude (UK), Chairman
H. Caballero (Uruguay)
M. Kirchgessner (FRG)
J.F. O'Grady (Ireland)
A. Rerat (France)
H. Teague (USA)
S. Zivkovic (Yugoslavia)

Committee VI/8: Nutrition of Poultry (1977)

Charge: Encourage and participate in international scientific activities leading to increased integration and dissemination of knowledge of the nutritional requirements of poultry.
T.G. Taylor (UK), Chairman
R.E. Austic (USA)
R. Blair (Canada)
N.J. Daghir (Lebanon)
B. Pandra (India)
V. Peter (Czechoslovakia)

Committee VI/9: Nutritional Requirements and Productivity of Ruminants

Charge: Encourage and participate in international scientific activities leading to increased integration and dissemination of knowledge of the nutritional requirements of ruminants.
W. R. Kaufmann (FRG), Chairman
A.A. Adegbola (Nigeria)
E.F. Annison (Australia)
L.D. Satter (USA)
P. Thivend (France)
G. Thorbek (Denmark)

International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST)

The International Union of Food Science and Technology, founded in 1970, has a membership of 42 nations.

The chief aims of IUFOST are:

- International co-operation among working food scientists and technologists
-Support of international progress in basic and applied food science
-Advancement of technology in the preservation, processing, and distribution of foods
- Stimulation of education and training in food science and technology

For the achievement of its aims IUFOST works in the way that most such bodies must work-through committees.

These committees are chaired by the elected members of the Executive Committee.

IUFoST Committees

Executive Committee
President: J.H. Hulse (Canada)
Vice-Presidents: Prof. M. Fujimaki (Japan)
Dr. R.L. Hall (USA)
Secretary-General: J.F. Kefford (Australia)
Treasurer: Prof. J. F. Diehl ( FRG)
Members: Dr. S. Barber (Spain)
Prof. A.E. Bender (UK)
G. Dardenne (France)
Dr. R.H. Moretti (Brazil)
Dr. K. Vas (Hungary)
Special Invitees: Prof. G.F. Stewart (USA)
Prof. E. von Sydow (Sweden)

Constitution Committee
Prof. J. Hawthorn (UK), Chairman
Prof. J.F. Diehl (FRG)
Prof. M. Fujimaki (Japan)
Dr. R.L. Hall (USA)
J.H. Hulse (Canada)
J.F. Kefford (Australia)
Finance Committee
Prof. A. Rutkowski (Poland), Chairman
Ing. L.F. Arias (Costa Rica)
Prof. A.E. Bender (UK)
Prof. P. Linko (Finland)
Prof. T. Obara (Japan)
Congress Advisory Committee
Dr. K. Vas (Hungary), Chairman
Dr. R. Arunga (Kenya)
Prof. J.C. Ayres (USA)
Dr. P. Dupuy (France)
Prof. H. Chiba (Japan)
Dr. R.L. Hall (USA)
Dr. D.E. Hood (Ireland)
Prof. P. Linko (Finland)
Prof. A. Schaller (Austria)
Dr. J.H. Zaleski (Poland )

This committee advises the Executive Committee on the venues and programmes of the International Congresses of Food Science and Technology. A highly successful Congress V was held in Kyoto, Japan, in September 1978.

Congress VI will be held in Ireland in 1983-after a five-year interval, as a result of a friendly agreement with the International Union of Nutritional Sciences for orderly spacing of future Congresses. The immediate sequence will now be: 1981-IUNS Congress XII, San Diego, California, USA 1983-IUFoST Congress VI, Dublin, Ireland 1985-IUNS Congress XIII 1987-IUFoST Congress VII

Scientific Activities Committee
Dr. S. Barber (Spain), Chairman
Ing. L.F. Arias (Costa Rica)
Dr. H. Barrera Benitez (Mexico)
Dr. M. Gambaruto (Argentina)
Prof. J.V. McLoughlin (Ireland)
Prof. Y. Morita (Japan)

This committee has the responsibility for organizing or sponsoring special symposia and other scientific activities appropriate to the objectives of IUFoST. Some 40 symposia have been sponsored so far, some with the cooperation of other bodies, and many have resulted in published proceedings that are authoritative works in their fields.

Some forthcoming symposia are:

- The Potential of Single-cell Protein, 7 December 1979, Tokyo, Japan
- The Impact of Toxicology on Food Processing, 6-7 June 1980, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (with the Institute of Food Technologists)
- Energy and the Food Industry, 6-8 October 1980, Madrid, Spain (with the Commission Internationale des Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires)
- The Role of Food Science and Technology in the Community, September 1981, Helsinki, Finland

Committee on Needs of Developing Countries
Dr. R.H. Moretti (Brazil), Chairman
Dr. Miguel J. Fort (Peru)
Dr. Lee Kum Tatt (Singapore)
Dr. l. Omar Foda (Egypt)
Dr. J.N. Shah (Kenya)

This committee addresses itself to the question "How can the immense range of expertise available through IUFoST be best harnessed and organized for the benefit of developing countries?"

Committee on Food Composition and Safety

Dr. R.L. Hall (USA), Chairman
E.R. Mendez (Mexico)
Prof. J. Solms (Switzerland)
Dr. V.O. Wodicka (USA)

This committee is concerned with significant prevailing misconceptions, and topics on which information is widely lacking, about food composition, including ingredients, additives, and contaminants.

Committee on Information, Documentation, and Publications
G. Dardenne (France), Chairman
Dr. R.H. Binsted (UK)
Miss M. Bonnichon (France)
Dr. G. Chiriotti (Italy)
A. Erichsen (Sweden)
Dr. H.W. Kay (FRG)
E.J. Mann (UK)
Dr. B. Poveda (Spain)
Dr. U. Schutzsack (FRG)

This committee fosters co-operation among international and national centres for the documentation of information about food. One current project is a food science and technology vocabulary in eight languages.

Committee on Education and Training
Prof. M. Fujimaki (Japan), Chairman
Prof. S. Bruin (Netherlands)
Prof. C. Cantarelli (Italy)
Prof. J.M. Clement (France)
Prof. R.A. Edwards (Australia)
Prof. H.T. Jakubczyk (Poland)
Prof. M. Linko (Finland)
Prof. W. Powrie (Canada)
Prof. E.J. Rolfe (UK)
Prof. B.S. Schweigert (USA)

This committee is charged with collecting and collating information about courses in food science and technology of professional standing, and about professional organizations in food science and technology. It has produced a Directory of such activities throughout the world.

International Liaison Committee
Prof. J. Hawthorn (UK), Chairman
Prof. A. Bonastre (France)
Dr. D. Hollingsworth (UK)
J.A. Muoz-Delgado (Spain)
Prof. K. Yamauchi (Japan)

This committee is charged with establishing and strengthening liaison between IUFoST and other international organizations whose interests overlap or converge with those of IUFOST.

Joint IUNS/IUFoST Activities

Particularly close relations have been established with the International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) and several joint activities developed. IUFoST participation in IUNS commissions, notably the Joint IUNS/IUFoST Commission V on Education and Training, is described above. In addition, joint working groups have been set up on three important subjects:

- The nutritional quality of diets in the semi-arid tropics, Chairman: Prof. A.E. Bender (UK)
-Processed weaning foods, Chairman: Dr. P.L. Pellet (USA)
- The influence of drying and smoking on the nutritional and functional properties of fish, Chairman: Dr. J. Burt (U K).


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