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The project focuses on "causes" and "consequences" of human rights violations in transition/post-conflict societies. "Causes" refer to the political, economic, cultural or legal roots of human rights violations, conditioned by the political, economic, cultural or legal environment indicative of societies with ill-functioning governing systems, a culture of distrust and lack of basic services. The second part of the project focuses on "consequences," i.e. the responses to such threats by local and external actors. The project examines and explores the issues that are predominantly responsible for human rights violations in transition societies, and the responses that have to be tailored to meet these needs as part of overall security/peace building efforts from NGOs, IOs, and other members of the international community. These investigations of causes and consequences focus on a broad and representative array of societies in transition. These are poorer, developing countries in the process of important political transformations. Important regions and countries include East Asia (particularly China and Southeast Asia), the Middle East (Israel/Palestine, Iran, Turkey and the Arab countries), Africa (particularly Rwanda and the Great Lakes Region, and Southern Africa), the former Soviet Bloc and Eastern Europe, and Latin America.