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In post-conflict societies, the remnants of war time military and security apparatuses pose great risks to internal security: bloated armies with little or no civilian control; irregular and paramilitary forces; over-abundance in arms and ammunition in private and government hands; weak internal security forces; and a lack of trust in and legitimacy of government's control over police and military forces. However, political, economic and cultural rebuilding can take place only in an environment where civil-military relations are subjected to a rigorous democratisation process, putting the military in the service of society's security, not its destruction. The project features several thematic chapters on post-conflict peacebuilding challenges; the challenges faced by post-conflict peace operations conducted by the UN and regional organizations; civil-military relations in war-torn societies; democratisation processes and the role of the military; the human, national and regional context of civil-military relations; and the role of local and external actors in meeting the challenge of post-conflict civil-military relations. Case studies from Europe, Africa, Asia and Latin America put these discussions in a regional and global context.